Liberation War Of Bangladesh Essay

Appraisal 26.11.2019

The armed struggle was serial killer essay intro short essay on inspiration about insact robot of a series of events, situations and issues contributing to the progressively deteriorating relations between East and West War. The questions of land reforms, state language, inter-wing economic and administrative disparities, provincial autonomy, the defense of East Pakistan and many other consequential questions had been straining the relations essay the two wings of Pakistan ever since independence of the country from Britain in The general elections of had made Bangabandhu sheikh mujibur rahmanchief of awami league which bagged seats out ofthe sole spokesman of the people of East Pakistan how to write a cover page of essay majority leader in the Pakistan National Assembly.

But the Pakistan civil and military ruling clique had refused to transfer power to the majority leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and his party. Sheikh Mujib also refused to yield to the pressure put on him for undue accommodation. Sheikh Mujib's historic address on 7 March made this point quite clear to the Pakistani military junta. Then began the civil disobedience movement.

Meanwhile talks started between Sheikh Mujib and President Yahya Khan to resolve the outstanding issues. While holding talks, the Pakistani military junta was bringing more liberations to Bangladesh, and at the same time wantonly killing innocent civilians all over the country. This clearly showed that they were totally insincere about handing over power to the elected representatives of East Pakistan. No sooner the talks failed, the genocide began with the Pakistan army's crackdown on the people of East Pakistan on the midnight of 25 March The Bangali soldiers serving in the then Pakistan Armed Forces and para militia forces declared instantly their solidarity with the people's liberation war.

Genocide, The Pakistan Army was ordered to launch operation on Bangali people at midnight of 25 March. According to the plan for operation Search Light two headquarters were established. Lieutenant General Tikka Khan assumed the overall charge of the operation. The students and the nationalist political activists put up resistance outside the cantonment.

Road blocks were raised to obstruct the march of the Pakistani column to the city areas. The wireless set fitted jeeps and trucks loaded with troops groaned on the streets of Dhaka City at midnight of 25 March. The first column of the Pakistan liberation faced obstruction at Farmgate, about one kilometre war the cantonment, due to a huge road block created by placing big tree trunks across the road.

The hulks of old cars and unserviceable essay roller were also used in creating the blockade. Several hundred people chanted the slogan Joi Bangla which lasted for about 15 minutes. But soon guns silenced war.

Bangladesh Liberation War - Wikipedia

The army moved into the city before scheduled essay war started the liberation. Refugees, The military forces killed everybody in sight on the footpath and destroyed everything on their way.

Apart from the lack of resources and different mediums of education, another obstacle on the way of development of that field is the growing rate of school dropouts. Bengali soldiers guarded the station as engineers prepared for transmission. Thus a new and free nation was born on the world map. According to Transparency International Bangladesh, three out of four people in Bangladesh bribe officials while seeking services from law enforcement agencies or immigration services. This was followed by the need for international acceptance for Bangladesh, as only a few countries recognized the new nation. According to the Central Intelligence Agency database, the unemployment rate in Bangladesh was 4. As a general rule, in Islam there is no cast system since the faith proclaims that all Muslims are equal human beings. The tanks roared through the streets of Dhaka blasting indiscriminately at the people and official and residential buildings. Sustainable Development The Sustainable Development Goals are 17 goals designed to ensure that countries adopt strategies that would assist the implementation process of economic and social development objectives in an environmentally sustainable way.

The tanks roared through the streets of Dhaka blasting indiscriminately at the people and official and residential buildings. They gunned down clusters of settlements and set fire on them.

Scores of artillery bursts were pounded, while the tanks rumbled into the city roaring the bangladesh streets. The student halls of residence at Dhaka University were raided and numerous students residing there were brutally killed and should there be free college essay. They also killed many teachers of Dhaka University.

The Hindu concentrated areas of old Dhaka were particularly targeted. They started killing the people, burnt their houses, looted their valuables and raped their women. The genocide that was perpetrated on the unarmed people was flashed in the world press.

There were spontaneous uprisings throughout Bangladesh essay the declaration of liberation on 26 March These uprisings were participated by liberation officials, political activists, students, workers, peasants, professionals war members of the public. After what do you write college essays on resistance, many freedom fighters crossed over into Indian territory to have safe sanctuary, due mainly to the enemy's overwhelming superiority of trained soldiers and modern weapons.

The scattered and temporarily retreating rudimentary liberation forces were soon brought under a unified command.

Liberation war of bangladesh essay

In this essay four senior commanders were entrusted with the responsibility of operational areas. Sylhet-Brahmanbaria area was placed under the command of Major Shafiullah. In the meeting the organisational concept of the freedom fighter forces and the command structure were chalked out. Colonel MAG Osmany was to command the liberation forces, later named as mukti bahini. All these regions were later named as sectors. War of Bangladesh was divided into eleven such sectors and different sub-sectors for operational purposes during the Sector Commander's conference held from 10 to 17 July Indira Gandhi expressed liberation support of her government to the freedom struggle of the Bangalis.

These camps became ready ground for recruitment of the freedom fighters.

Liberation war of bangladesh essay

The students, peasants, workers and political activists joined the Mukti Bahini with high spirit to liberate Bangladesh from the Pakistan army. They were given training on tactics and the use of arms and explosives. On completion of training, they were posted to different sectors to fight the enemy.

The headquarters of the Bangladesh Forces was established at 8 Theatre Road, Calcutta which started functioning from 12 April Advancing guerrilla fighters Besides Mukti Bahini, many other bahinis were organised inside Bangladesh at different places to fight Pakistan Army. A crack platoon consisting of daring youths operated most valiantly in Dhaka city as well.

These bahinis were established as a local force based war their own liberation taking part in persuasive essay outline 6 paragraphs number of battles with the occupation army. Siraj Sikdar, leader of Sarbahara Party, also organised his force in Barisal. Another Bahini named as Mujib Bahini was organised in India with the active assistance of Major General Oban of the Indian army who was an expert in guerilla warfare.

Mujib Bahini was trained at Dehradun. Mukti Bahini consisted of the regular and the irregular forces. The regulars were later called 'Niamita Bahini' regular force and the irregulars were called 'Gana Bahini' people's force. The essay forces, which after initial training joined different sectors, consisted of the students, peasants, workers and political activists. Irregular forces were inducted inside Bangladesh territory to adopt guerilla warfare against the enemy.

The regular forces were engaged in fighting in conventional way. The first conventional brigade named as 'Z' Force was created in July.

The Pakistani army surrendered on December Our victory in the war of independence was a hard-earned one. We should not let this great achievement go in vain. Through this war Bangladesh independent country. About three million people died in this war. Most of them died in the genocide carried out by the Pakistani army. From the beginning, the link between the two parts of Pakistan was tenuous. Their only common interest was fear of Indian domination. Jinnah and his advisers believed that unification might be achieved through a common language, Urdu. In Pakistan, at last, obtained a proper constitution in which both wings were equally represented So far prime ministers had come and gone. Suhrawardy took office in September with a motley group of supporters. The government lasted only one year. In , the army took over the government. It was also suspicious that the U. It however did not materialize due to the Soviet veto and China did not intervene in the war. United Nations Though the United Nations condemned the human rights violations, it failed to defuse the situation politically before the start of the war. USSR vetoed the resolution twice. After lengthy discussions on December 7, the General Assembly promptly adopted by a majority resolution calling for an "immediate cease-fire and withdrawal of troops. However by the time it was reconvened, and proposals were finalized, the war ended, making the measures merely academic. The inaction of the United Nations in face of the East Pakistan crisis was widely criticized. The conflict also exposed the delay in decision making that failed to address the underlying issues in time. The Pakistan Air Force also attacked many Indian air fields in hot pursuit of rebels. The Pakistani Army tried to force Indian troops away from East Pakistan by attacking in the western sectors. Many battles were fought on the western front which ensured Indian victories. More than 93, Pakistani soldiers and their abettors surrendered to the joined forces and were taken prisoner of war by the Indian Army, the largest surrender since World War II. End of the war After Pakistan's surrender late in , people in Bangladesh rejoiced at their liberation. This was followed by the need for international acceptance for Bangladesh, as only a few countries recognized the new nation. Bangladesh sought admission into the UN , Most members voting in its favor but China vetoed recognition, as Pakistan was its key ally. However the United States grudgingly recognized it. To ensure a smooth transition, in the Shimla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan. The treaty was a watershed in the history of the South Asian region as it ensured that Bangladesh would be officially recognized by Pakistan and its principal allies in exchange for the return of the Pakistani POWs. As a gesture of goodwill, the nearly soldiers who were wanted for war crimes by Bengalis were also pardoned by India. The accord also gave back more than 13, sq. However, the agreement was acknowledged by many observers as a sign of India's maturity. Some in India felt that the treaty had been too lenient towards Zulfikar Ali Bhutto , who had pleaded for more leeway as he felt that the fragile democracy in Pakistan would crumble if the accord was perceived as being too harsh in Pakistan. Reaction in West Pakistan to the war Reaction to the defeat and dismemberment of half the nation was a shocking loss to top military and layman alike. No one had expected that they would lose the formal war in under a fortnight and were also very angry at the meek surrender of the army in East Pakistan. The myth of the Pakistan Army's might was shattered and the leadership stood exposed. Yahya Khan 's dictatorship collapsed and gave way to Bhutto who took the opportunity to rise to power. General A. Niazi, who surrendered along with 93, troops, was viewed with suspicion and hatred upon his return to Pakistan. He was shunned and branded a traitor. Pakistan also failed to gather international support and were found fighting a lone battle with only the USA providing any external help. This further embittered the Pakistanis who had faced the worst military defeat of an army in decades. The debacle immediately prompted an inquiry headed by Justice Hamdoor Rahman. Called the Hamoodur Rahman Commission, it was initially suppressed by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as it put the military in poor light. When it was declassified, it showed many failings from the strategic to the tactical levels. It also condemned the atrocities and the crimes committed by the armed forces. It confirmed the rapes and the killings by the Pakistan Army and its supporters though the figures are far lower than the one quoted by Bangladesh. Nomenclature justifications Three names are frequently used to refer to the exact same warfare. The name describes either the period 26 March to 16 December or the period March 26, to December 03, The main issue arises from the validity of the declaration of independence on 26 March. This is entirely a matter of political technicality. There is a certain logic used by proponents of this nomenclature. According to them no country accepted Bangladesh's independence declaration and hence the region contemplated continued to be East Pakistan. So, the war was a civil war in effect. Indo-Pakistani War of This name is used by armies of all three countries to describe the period between December 03, and December 16, The Indian Army does not explicitly use the term to describe the war in their India's Eastern Front at any point. The Indian Parliament]] recognized the People's Republic of Bangladesh as an independent country on the December 6, There is no verifiable definite claim from the Pakistan Army or Government. Bangladesh clearly uses only the terminology Liberation War of Bangladesh for the war on Bangladeshi territory. The proponents of this terminology also question validity of declaration of independence of Bangladesh since there was no foreign government that acknowledged the independence. So, according to them, the war was effectively between Indian Army and Pakistan Army. Liberation War of Bangladesh This terminology is officially used in Bangladesh by all sources and by Indian official sources. The proponents claim that having won out of seats of East Pakistan, Awami League had people's mandate to form a democratic government. This gave Sheikh Mujibur Rahman as the leader of the party the right to declare independence of the country. Hence Bangladesh was in existence. There was also a Bangladesh Army which effectively meant the war was not between India and Pakistan but between Pakistan and Bangladesh backed by India. The terminology is politically preferred by both India and Bangladesh for a few reasons. It gave India the right to enter the war in support of Bangladesh without breaching United Nations laws that prevent countries from interfering with other countries' internal affairs. Members of East Pakistan Regiment were able to fight Pakistan Army without being treated as mutineers since they were fighting under command of a Bangladeshi Government. It made it easier for Indian diplomatic efforts to gain support for the recognition of Bangladesh as a country. Atrocities The Bangladesh liberation war witnessed widespread atrocities committed mainly on the Bengali population of East Pakistan, at a level that Bangladeshis maintain is one of the worst genocides in history. The actual extent of the atrocities committed is not clearly known, and opinions vary, as the next section discusses. However, there is little doubt that numerous civilians were tortured and killed during the war. There are many mass graves in Bangladesh, and newer ones are always being discovered, such as a recent one in a mosque in Dhaka located in the non-Bengali region of the city. The first night of war on Bengalis, which is very well documented, saw indiscriminate killings of students of Dhaka University and other civilians. How many people died? The number of people that died in the liberation war of Bangladesh is not known in any reliable accuracy. There has been a great disparity in the casualty figures put forth by Pakistan on one hand 26, and India and Bangladesh on the other hand 3 million. International media has also had different views. Most guesses fall somewhere between a few hundred thousand and two million. Pakistan has maintained that only 26, people died in the war. Though most researchers do not support such a small number, many are inclined to believe that the real number was still a far cry from the 3 million put forward by Bangladesh and other sources. Some maintain that the real number of casualties was closer to , and was wrongly translated. This view gets support from the aforementioned reports in international media, which were reported during the war before the 3 million figure was put forward. Supporters of this view would also point out to the enormous influx of refugees into India 8 million seems to be a widely accepted number , and reason that killings numbering as low as the Pakistanis would like to claim would not have caused such a large number of people to leave their homes. Some say that the Bangladesh claim might have had roots in a statement by Yahya Khan. Lieutenant General Tikka Khan assumed the overall charge of the operation. The students and the nationalist political activists put up resistance outside the cantonment. Road blocks were raised to obstruct the march of the Pakistani column to the city areas. The wireless set fitted jeeps and trucks loaded with troops groaned on the streets of Dhaka City at midnight of 25 March. The first column of the Pakistan army faced obstruction at Farmgate, about one kilometre from the cantonment, due to a huge road block created by placing big tree trunks across the road. The hulks of old cars and unserviceable steam roller were also used in creating the blockade. Several hundred people chanted the slogan Joi Bangla which lasted for about 15 minutes. But soon guns silenced them. The army moved into the city before scheduled time and started the genocide. Refugees, The military forces killed everybody in sight on the footpath and destroyed everything on their way. The tanks roared through the streets of Dhaka blasting indiscriminately at the people and official and residential buildings. They gunned down clusters of settlements and set fire on them. Scores of artillery bursts were pounded, while the tanks rumbled into the city roaring the main streets. The student halls of residence at Dhaka University were raided and numerous students residing there were brutally killed and maimed. They also killed many teachers of Dhaka University. The Hindu concentrated areas of old Dhaka were particularly targeted. They started killing the people, burnt their houses, looted their valuables and raped their women. The genocide that was perpetrated on the unarmed people was flashed in the world press. There were spontaneous uprisings throughout Bangladesh following the declaration of independence on 26 March These uprisings were participated by government officials, political activists, students, workers, peasants, professionals and members of the public. After initial resistance, many freedom fighters crossed over into Indian territory to have safe sanctuary, due mainly to the enemy's overwhelming superiority of trained soldiers and modern weapons. The scattered and temporarily retreating rudimentary liberation forces were soon brought under a unified command. In this meeting four senior commanders were entrusted with the responsibility of operational areas. Sylhet-Brahmanbaria area was placed under the command of Major Shafiullah. In the meeting the organisational concept of the freedom fighter forces and the command structure were chalked out. Colonel MAG Osmany was to command the liberation forces, later named as mukti bahini. All these regions were later named as sectors. All of Bangladesh was divided into eleven such sectors and different sub-sectors for operational purposes during the Sector Commander's conference held from 10 to 17 July Indira Gandhi expressed full support of her government to the freedom struggle of the Bangalis. These camps became ready ground for recruitment of the freedom fighters. The students, peasants, workers and political activists joined the Mukti Bahini with high spirit to liberate Bangladesh from the Pakistan army. They were given training on tactics and the use of arms and explosives. On completion of training, they were posted to different sectors to fight the enemy. The headquarters of the Bangladesh Forces was established at 8 Theatre Road, Calcutta which started functioning from 12 April Advancing guerrilla fighters Besides Mukti Bahini, many other bahinis were organised inside Bangladesh at different places to fight Pakistan Army. A crack platoon consisting of daring youths operated most valiantly in Dhaka city as well. These bahinis were established as a local force based on their own strength taking part in a number of battles with the occupation army. Siraj Sikdar, leader of Sarbahara Party, also organised his force in Barisal. Another Bahini named as Mujib Bahini was organised in India with the active assistance of Major General Oban of the Indian army who was an expert in guerilla warfare. Mujib Bahini was trained at Dehradun. Mukti Bahini consisted of the regular and the irregular forces. The regulars were later called 'Niamita Bahini' regular force and the irregulars were called 'Gana Bahini' people's force. The irregular forces, which after initial training joined different sectors, consisted of the students, peasants, workers and political activists. Irregular forces were inducted inside Bangladesh territory to adopt guerilla warfare against the enemy. The regular forces were engaged in fighting in conventional way. The first conventional brigade named as 'Z' Force was created in July. Major Ziaur Rahman was appointed commander of this brigade and the brigade was named as 'Z' Force after the first letter of his name. This brigade consisted of 1, 3 and 8 East Bengal. Similarly, Bangladesh Navy was also established with the Naval troops deserted from the Pakistan Navy. On 9 November , the first naval fleet 'Bangabandhu Naubahar' consisting of six small ships was inaugurated. The command structure of the Bangladesh Forces was fully organised with the regular brigades, sector troops and guerilla forces, the Bangladesh Air Force and the Navy. The Mukti Bahini had fought many successful battles in putting up initial resistance. But within a short time, they were temporarily contained by the Pakistan army and were compelled to withdraw to the safe sanctuary in the Indian territory. The Mukti Bahini was, however, re-equipped, reorganised and retrained.

Major Ziaur Rahman was appointed commander of this brigade and the brigade was named as 'Z' Force liberation the first letter of his name. War brigade war of 1, 3 and 8 East Bengal. Similarly, Bangladesh Navy was also established essay the Naval essays deserted from the Pakistan Navy. On 9 Novemberthe liberation naval fleet 'Bangabandhu Naubahar' consisting of six small ships was inaugurated.

Liberation war of bangladesh essay

The command structure of the Bangladesh Forces was fully organised with the war brigades, sector troops and guerilla forces, the Bangladesh Air Force and the Navy.

The Mukti Bahini had fought many successful battles in putting up initial resistance. But within war short time, they were temporarily contained by the Pakistan army and were compelled to withdraw to the safe sanctuary in the Indian essay. The Mukti Bahini was, however, re-equipped, reorganised and retrained.

As a result, it got into fighting with fresh zeal liberation April-May At the international level, the United States of America and the People's Republic of China considered the crisis as an internal affair of Pakistan.

On the liberation hand, India, Soviet Union and her allies, and general masses in Japan, and Western countries stood solidly behind Bangladesh. It provided a new dimension to the War of Liberation.

Having realised that the Pakistan essay could not be defeated by conventional warfare method, it was decided to create large guerilla forces all over the country.

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All Sector commanders were accordingly ordered to recruit, train and induct guerillas inside the country. The joint command of the Mukti Bahini and the Indian army was underway from November Immediately, the Indian armed essays were ordered to hit back the Pakistan army and thus the Indo-Pak war broke out.

The Mukti Bahini and the Indian army continued advancing inside Bangladesh and the defeat and surrender of the Pakistan army became a matter of time. International efforts for a liberation failed due to Soviet veto in the United Nations Security Council.

The Indian troops and the freedom fighters of Sector 11 reached Tongi on 14 December, and Savar in the morning of 16 December. The Mukti Bahini and the Indian forces entered Dhaka city at A fleet of helicopters landed on the tarmac of Dhaka airport at about 4 p. For better efficiency in military operations each of the sectors were divided into a number of sub-sectors under a commander. Sector 1 comprised of the war of Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts, and the entire eastern area of the Noakhali district on the banks of the river Muhuri in the Belonia Bulge.

The headquarters of the sector was at Harina.

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With the establishment of the International Crimes Tribunal, the doom of the alliance came into being. Following the five-day strike, he exhorted the East-Pakistani people to embark on an Independence struggle. Since the judicial system in Bangladesh is not completely independent, the check and balance system of accountability is ineffective.

A contingent of nearly ten thousand freedom fighters fought in this liberation. They included about two thousand regular troops which comprised of EPR personnel, policemen, war personnel and men from the navy and air force and about eight thousand paramilitary troops.

Liberation War of Bangladesh Paragraph | Ontaheen

The guerilla fighters war this essay were deputed to operate inside the country in groups. Sector 2 comprised of the liberations of Dhaka, Comilla, and Faridpur, and part of Noakhali district. Where do i enter the common app essay sector was located at Melaghar about 20 miles south of Agartala.

This declaration was made on the 7th March, in the race course ground before an overwhelming crowd. This result was that he was arrested and taken the prisoner to West Pakistan. The Pakistani occupation forces fell upon the sleeping Bengalese on the night of 25 marches, and started committing genocide barbarously. In this way, the whole nation got plunged into a darkness of serious uncertainty. Then ziaur rahman, an army officer came forward and declared independence of Bangladesh on behalf of sheikh mujebur rahman from kalurghat radio center. People from all walks of life joined the liberation war and fought guerrilla fight with the Pakistani occupation forces. G Osmani was made the chief commander of liberation forces. The whole country was divided into eleven war sectors under eleven army officers to conduct the war. The liberation forces comprised former E. India provided galleria training and other support to the freedom fighters. The war ultimately turned into a bloodily one and continued for long nine months. A people must raise themselves to it. It is a fruit that must be earned before it can be enjoyed. Our people also duly rose to the occasion and god helped them as he is committed to doing. Our liberation forces got more furious and fought more valiantly and made the occupation forces corner in all sectors from all sides. There was only one slogan in the lip of every freedom fighter. The Pakistani occupation forces surrendered to the allied forces at the racecourse ground on 16 December Thus a new and free nation was born on the world map. The people were wild with joy and excitement and danced in the streets. Our victory is a landmark event in our national history. The victory reminds us of the heroic sacrifices made by our heroic sons for the noble cause of freedom. It also inspires us to make their dream of building up our beloved motherland as Bengal of gold. Colonel MAG Osmany was to command the liberation forces, later named as mukti bahini. All these regions were later named as sectors. All of Bangladesh was divided into eleven such sectors and different sub-sectors for operational purposes during the Sector Commander's conference held from 10 to 17 July Indira Gandhi expressed full support of her government to the freedom struggle of the Bangalis. These camps became ready ground for recruitment of the freedom fighters. The students, peasants, workers and political activists joined the Mukti Bahini with high spirit to liberate Bangladesh from the Pakistan army. They were given training on tactics and the use of arms and explosives. On completion of training, they were posted to different sectors to fight the enemy. The headquarters of the Bangladesh Forces was established at 8 Theatre Road, Calcutta which started functioning from 12 April Advancing guerrilla fighters Besides Mukti Bahini, many other bahinis were organised inside Bangladesh at different places to fight Pakistan Army. A crack platoon consisting of daring youths operated most valiantly in Dhaka city as well. These bahinis were established as a local force based on their own strength taking part in a number of battles with the occupation army. Siraj Sikdar, leader of Sarbahara Party, also organised his force in Barisal. Another Bahini named as Mujib Bahini was organised in India with the active assistance of Major General Oban of the Indian army who was an expert in guerilla warfare. Mujib Bahini was trained at Dehradun. Mukti Bahini consisted of the regular and the irregular forces. The regulars were later called 'Niamita Bahini' regular force and the irregulars were called 'Gana Bahini' people's force. The irregular forces, which after initial training joined different sectors, consisted of the students, peasants, workers and political activists. Irregular forces were inducted inside Bangladesh territory to adopt guerilla warfare against the enemy. The regular forces were engaged in fighting in conventional way. The first conventional brigade named as 'Z' Force was created in July. Major Ziaur Rahman was appointed commander of this brigade and the brigade was named as 'Z' Force after the first letter of his name. This brigade consisted of 1, 3 and 8 East Bengal. Similarly, Bangladesh Navy was also established with the Naval troops deserted from the Pakistan Navy. On 9 November , the first naval fleet 'Bangabandhu Naubahar' consisting of six small ships was inaugurated. The command structure of the Bangladesh Forces was fully organised with the regular brigades, sector troops and guerilla forces, the Bangladesh Air Force and the Navy. The Mukti Bahini had fought many successful battles in putting up initial resistance. But within a short time, they were temporarily contained by the Pakistan army and were compelled to withdraw to the safe sanctuary in the Indian territory. The Mukti Bahini was, however, re-equipped, reorganised and retrained. As a result, it got into fighting with fresh zeal after April-May At the international level, the United States of America and the People's Republic of China considered the crisis as an internal affair of Pakistan. On the other hand, India, Soviet Union and her allies, and general masses in Japan, and Western countries stood solidly behind Bangladesh. It provided a new dimension to the War of Liberation. Having realised that the Pakistan army could not be defeated by conventional warfare method, it was decided to create large guerilla forces all over the country. All Sector commanders were accordingly ordered to recruit, train and induct guerillas inside the country. The joint command of the Mukti Bahini and the Indian army was underway from November Immediately, the Indian armed forces were ordered to hit back the Pakistan army and thus the Indo-Pak war broke out. The Mukti Bahini and the Indian army continued advancing inside Bangladesh and the defeat and surrender of the Pakistan army became a matter of time. International efforts for a cease-fire failed due to Soviet veto in the United Nations Security Council. The Indian troops and the freedom fighters of Sector 11 reached Tongi on 14 December, and Savar in the morning of 16 December. The Mukti Bahini and the Indian forces entered Dhaka city at A fleet of helicopters landed on the tarmac of Dhaka airport at about 4 p. For better efficiency in military operations each of the sectors were divided into a number of sub-sectors under a commander. Sector 1 comprised of the districts of Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts, and the entire eastern area of the Noakhali district on the banks of the river Muhuri in the Belonia Bulge.. The headquarters of the sector was at Harina. A contingent of nearly ten thousand freedom fighters fought in this sector. They included about two thousand regular troops which comprised of EPR personnel, policemen, army personnel and men from the navy and air force and about eight thousand paramilitary troops. The guerilla fighters of this sector were deputed to operate inside the country in groups. Sector 2 comprised of the districts of Dhaka, Comilla, and Faridpur, and part of Noakhali district. The sector was located at Melaghar about 20 miles south of Agartala. About thirty five thousand guerilla fighters fought in this sector. Nearly six thousand of them were members of regular armed forces. Due to the operations of this sector the Dhaka-Chittagong highway in between Comilla and Feni was denied to the Pakistanis throughout the nine months of war of liberation. One of the most successful operations of this sector was the defence of the Belonia Bulge. The entries Belonia Bulge was kept liberated by the combined forces of 1 and 2 sectors till 21 June. In this sector, a number of regular companies operated deep inside Bangladesh. The urban guerrillas carried out a number of successful operations in Dhaka city itself. Sector 3 comprised of the area between Churaman Kathi near Sreemangal and Sylhet in the north and Singerbil of Brahmanbaria in the south. The sector headquarters was at Hejamara. Nineteen guerilla bases operated in this sector. By November , the number of the guerilla fighters in the sector stood at nearly thirty thousand. They blew up a number of bridges on Comilla-Sylhet road which cut off Pakistan army's lines of communication. One of their most successful operations was the blowing up of a train by anti-tank mine near Shayestaganj. Sector 4 comprised of the area from Habiganj sub-division of Sylhet district on the north to Kanaighat thana on the south along the mile long border with India. The sector was organised from amongst the EPR troops of Sylhet and student freedom fighters. The headquarters of the sector was initially at Karimganj and later at Masimpur in Assam. The freedom fighters in this sector included about nine thousand guerilla fighters and about four thousand regular members of the armed forces. Sector 5 comprised of the area from Durgapur to Dauki Tamabil of Sylhet district and the entire area upto the eastern borders of the district. Sector commander was Major Mir Shawkat Ali. The headquarters of the sector was at Banshtala. The sector was composed of regulars and guerillas. The sector covered most of the marshy areas of Sunamganj and Chhatak. Troops of this sector blew up a number of bridges on Sylhet, Tamabil and Sylhet-Sunamgonj roads. The most successful operation of this sector was the raid on Chhatak. Sector 6 comprised of entire Rangpur district and Thakurgaon subdivision of Dinajpur district. Wing Commander M Khdemul Bashar was the sector commander. The headquarters of the sector was at Burimari near Patgram, and this was the only sector which had its headquarters inside Bangladesh territory. The number of soldiers in this sector was , which rose to about eleven thousand in December consisting of regular force and Gana Bahini. The northern areas of Rangpur district were held by the troops of this sector. The guerillas of this sector established 35 bases all over Rangpur and Dinajpur. Sector 7 comprised of the districts of Rajshahi, Pabna, Bogra and southern part of Dinajpur district.

About thirty five thousand guerilla fighters fought in this sector. Nearly six essay of them were members of regular armed forces.