Holston Ed. Durham and London: Duke University Press. Burszta, F. Kujawinski, and T. Beck Ed. Germany: Suhrkamp. Chan Ed. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. Architecture New York , Winter. Nelson and D. Gaonkar Eds. New York: Routledge. Yaeger Ed. Breckenridge Ed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Fardon Ed. Ramdas Ed. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Jan Mets. The Committee on Social Thought. Chicago: The University of Chicago: Palumbo-Liu and H. Gumbrecht eds. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Bruce Robbins Ed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, Breckenridge and P. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Marcus Ed. Appadurai, F. Therefore, the Americanization phenomena seems to be contingent with the predisposition of local cultures to embrace artifacts reflective of the American culture, rather than with the simple availability of these artifacts. There is little doubt if any that the McDonaldization theory constitutes an important symbol of the homogenization perspective. McDonaldization is the idea of a worldwide homogenization of cultures through the effects of multinational corporations. The process involves a formal consistency and logic transferred through corporate rules and regulations. These principles embedded within the system are efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control. In fact, the McDonald formula is a success for the reason that it is efficient, quick and inexpensive, predictable and effective in controlling both labor and its customers. Most important to the origins of McDonalization is the interaction between culture and economics. Although Ritzer , like Robertson recognize economic factor as forces of McDonaldization, the authors emphasize the importance to consider cultural factors. For instance, examining the fit between a culture that values efficiency and accepts a McDonalized system is vital for companies planning to take their businesses global. In this regard, Weber maintained that the West has been characterized by an increasing tendency towards the predominance of formally rational systems. Further, McDonalization refers to the far-reaching process of social change Ritzer and Malone, It impacts social structures and institutions in its country of origin, as well as, in other developed and developing countries around the world. Ritzer and Malone contend that organizations in foreign markets that adopt the basic principles of the model are to an extent undergoing the process of McDonaldization. In other words, the latter is actively exporting the materialization and embodiment of that process. It seems that the McDonalization model has transformed the nature of consumer consumption by encouraging and compelling individuals to consume infinite amounts of goods and services. Due to the fact that McDonaldized systems are robust entities imposing themselves on local markets in other societies, these systems are drastically transforming economies and cultures along the process Ritzer and Malone, The phenomenon of being McDonaldized has transformed the many aspects of the cultures within those societies, particularly, the way people live in their environments. It should be noted that while businesses may slightly adapt to local realities, the fact is that the basic items available for customers are generally the same worldwide Ritzer and Malone, Even more importantly is the fact that the core operating procedures remain similar in every outlet around the globe. Thus, the most important aspect of the McDonalized systems is in how local and global businesses operate using their standardized principles. What is actually being sold in not as relevant as the activities related to how things are organized, delivered and sold to customers; it is these steps that must abide to similar sets of principles for the business to be successful in its new global context. Despite the contribution of the McDonaldization theory in explaining implications of globalization, Pieterse stresses that fast food outlets like McDonalds and the sort are not at all culturally homogenized but rather characterized by differences that reflect culturally mixed social forms. In fact, McDonaldized systems have had to adapt in order to succeed overseas. Organizations once imported, serve different social, economic and cultural functions that all need to be custom-tailored to local conditions. In fact, every point substantiated by the theory turned out to have different outcomes in Moscow. For instance, the fast food outlet appeared to function inefficiently with customers waiting for hours in extensive long line-ups to get their meals served. Talbott observed that, in opposition to what the McDonaldization theory holds about predictability, the main attraction for the Russian customer is in the diversified and unique lines of products that the chain offers not the standard menu items that one thinks they may find in Russia. The latter are not even available for the Russian customer. Further, control of the labor force is not as standardized and unvarying as presented by the theory. This flexibility is also extended to Russian customers that spend hours on end socializing and chatting over teas and coffees. This would be unconceivable in a North American fast food outlet as these sorts of customer practices would be strongly discouraged by the business. Similarly, American adaptations of the fast food principles have been observed in China, south-east Asia and India. The Big Mac is most probably not a standard menu item in Delhi. Another important point to mention is the fact that these sorts of fast food outlets in these countries are not considered as junk food eateries but in fact cater to an upper middle class. The latter seek to explore new modern tastes of the fusion of food variations whether it is the mixed tastes of Chinese and American menu items or Japanese and American. These customers are far from adhering to the principle of uniformity. The cases of McDonald in Russia and Asia evidently fall short of being considered as cultural homogenization but should rather be seen as global localization, insiderization, or glocalization, the latter term coined by Sony chairman Akio Morita to indicate the necessity for companies to look in both local and global directions when working in diverse business settings Ohmae, Lastly, Appadurai and Pieterse argue that cultural homogenization is too simplistic as several local cultures have demonstrated their ability to domesticate or resist foreign cultural influences. Therefore, interactions between cultures favor cultural hybridity rather than a monolithic cultural homogenization. In doing so, globalization leads to the creative amalgamations of global and local cultural traits. Hybridization scenario It is needless to mention that growing awareness of cultural differences and globalization are interdependent as awareness becomes a function of globalization Pieterse, In fact, with the advent of international workforce mobility, cross-cultural communications, migration, international trade, tourism, and global investments, awareness of cultural differences is inevitable and of vital necessity in the current global context. The process of translocal fusion and cultural mixing or hybridization is another model that touches on interactions between globalization and culture. According to the hybridization view, external and internal flows interact to create a unique cultural hybrid that encompasses components of the two Ritzer, Barriers to external flows exist; however, although they are powerful enough to protect local cultures from being overwhelmed by external exchanges, they are not powerful enough to completely block external flows. The main thesis of cultural hybridization is the continuous process of mixing or blending cultures. The latter resulting from the globalization of ends derived out of the integration of both the global and local Cvetkovich and Kellner, and of new, distinctive and hybrid cultures which are fundamentally neither global nor local at their core Ritzer, As for Robertson , globalization is a complex blend or mixture of homogenization and heterogenization as opposed to a wide-ranging process of homogenization. The latter standpoint opposes the doctrines of racial purity and integration of the 19th century because, according to the father of racial demography, de Gobineau, and other scholars, the idea of race-mixing with what they considered lower elements of society would eventually elevate the former in the dominant role. Based on these premises, the regions of central Asia, south and Eastern Europe, and the Middle East and North African regions are mixed racial demographic areas. Merging the races would inevitably cast doubt on pillars of the purity creeds, as for instance with those that relate purity with strength and sanctity. Hybridization takes the experiences that are marginalized and considered taboo and merges them with principles of nationalism, challenging the latter by taking matters beyond national borders. Merging cultural and national elements would undermine ethnicity because the very nature of the blending process would innately originate from the experiences spurred and acquired across territorial boundaries Pieterse, In this respect, hybridization reflects a postmodern view which curtails boundaries adhering to the merging of diverse cultures. Proponents of the tenets of modernity stand for a culture of order rooted within an unambiguous separation of national boundaries. Modernists would not tolerate that hybridization vanguards effects and experiences of what Foucault termed subjugated knowledge. On another note, humanity has not been inherently divided in cultural bands as those formed in the past; hence the need for an equidistant position which acknowledges the multifaceted and overwhelming nature of modern technologies while recognizing the contribution that distinctively diverse cultures bring to the new and inventive shared common space Pieterse, Moreover, regarding the mixing and blending of immigrants within their early settler societies, Pieterse alleges that the intermingling of this process engages both peripheral and deeply rooted cultural elements as observed with the case of North America. The author maintains that the appeal of American popular culture is defined by its mixed and nomadic characteristics, its light-hearted resilience, and its disconnection from its unequal and hostile past. Both marginal and peripheral cultural elements intermingled with deeply rooted facets of diverse cultures blending and merging in newly varied intercultural landscapes. This eclectic blending may be the source of the subliminal and subconscious magnetism towards American pop music, film, television, and fashion. It is an effect of the intimate intermingling and collision of different ethnicities, cultures and histories Pieterse, It appears that some cultures have been fused and united for centuries. And thus, the mixture of cultures should be part of a world narrative. Pieterse questions whether the distinction between what has been referred to as cultural grammars as a metaphor for inherent and deep-rooted cultural elements and cultural languages which are the peripheral or marginal elements of a culture can be looked at as divergences between surface and depth at all. The author infers that to address the issues raised by the hybridization theory requires a decolonization of the imagination and the need to reassess how we examined culture in terms of territory and space in the past and how we view culture in its varied global landscapes in the present and future. Hybridization in cultural studies has also been associated with the notions of creolization and glocalization Hannerz, Further, glocalization, which is at the heart of hybridization, refers to the interpretation of the global and local producing unique outcomes in different geographic regions Giulianotti and Robertson, Glocalization is reflected by the fact that the world is growing pluralistic with individuals and communities becoming innovative agents that have a tremendous power to adapt and innovate within their newly glocalized world Robertson, On another note, in tune with the hybridization view, Appadurai argues that globalization represents a process of both differentiation and interconnection. Therefore, the world should not be labeled as a monolithic network spreading worldwide but, rather, as a collection of partially overlapping socio-techno-cultural landscapes Appadurai, The latter can be global and regional in nature, and marked by a particular speed of growth and direction of movement. These landscapes, which serve to examine disjunctures between economy, culture and politics, constitute diverse layers of globalization or dimensions of cultural flows. Mediascapes are about the flows of image and communication. First and foremost, Globalization is the fundamental cause for food culture to be transformed. As we know , food is the oldest global carrier of culture and It reflects the culture and identity of particular races or nation. Today, someone in America can be eating Japanese noodles for lunch while someone in Malaysia is eating classic Italian meatballs. How this phenomenon happens? It shows that, Globalization has caused the spreading of culture throughout the world and food is one of it. People of a particular country not just eat their own foods but also others foreign foods. However, this circumstance could harm our food culture. This could lead to the abandoning of our own food and consume more foreign foods and then, deteriorate the culture and identity of particular ethnics. Hence, we could say that, Globalization affects cultural tradition in food. Furthermore, Globalization has also spread the foreign fashions throughout the country. Foreign culture especially western culture seen by many peoples as the deals. They feel that international culture as good for them.
Introduction Transnational flows of people, financial resources, goods, information and culture have recently been increasing in a drastic way and have profoundly transformed the and Ritzer and Malone, This culture has been labeled globalization. As a result, a great deal of debate and discussion, even controversy Bird and Stevens, has taken essay about globalization in writing a good argumentative essay disciplines from different angles.
In fact, there seems to be a controversy in regards and globalization and the contradictory meanings associated with it. In corollary, research has not been successful in grasping the globalization phenomenon in its entirety.
Globalization is a multidimensional phenomenon that encompasses not only economic cultures but also cultural, ideological, book and similar other facets Prasad and Prasad, Consequently, globalization has been addressed from the points of view of economics, social sciences, politics and international relations and has been subject to endless debates in various disciplines. Nonetheless, globalization effects are what do colloge and look for in essays addressed as a determinant that impacts societies and their cultures.
More precisely, the interaction between globalization and culture still remains under-researched Prasad and Prasad, and the current globalization debate in this respect is relatively recent Acosta and Gonzalez, Along the how to write essay about valentines day lines, the literature has not been able to stress whether concepts such as Americanization and Macdonalization are synonymous with globalization Latouche, In an increasingly borderless world impacted by a globalization of essays, the preservation of cultural diversity feeds contrary and controversial reactions.
For instance, Cowen contends that while changes and culture losses imposed by globalization on local and traditional cultures, including those extending to cultural differences, may be damaging and destructive, they may also lead new directions by maya angelou literary analysis narrative essay new prospective opportunities.
The Committee on Social Thought. More precisely, the interaction between globalization and culture still remains under-researched Prasad and Prasad, and the current globalization debate in this respect is relatively recent Acosta and Gonzalez, In this regard, Robertson , who is critical of the focus on processes stemming from the United States and its homogenizing impact on the world, advocates the notion of heterogeneity with a focus on diversity, multi-directional global flows and the existence of world processes that are independent and sovereign of other nation-states. New York: Routledge. In fact, McDonaldized systems have had to adapt in order to succeed overseas.
Given the above context, it is argued that globalization brings about diverse trends, namely cultural differentiation, cultural convergence and cultural hybridization Pieterse, and each trend does not preclude the other as cultural homogeneity and heterogeneity are complementary Cowen, The purpose of the following chapter is to provide a book view of the interactions between globalization and culture as the latter positions itself on the spectrum of a theoretical perspective.
To look into the interactions between globalization and culture, a who i am essay example review of relevant theoretical contributions has been conducted followed up with a discussion on their main insights. To do so, the key concepts of culture and globalization will be introduced.
The following sections will present and discuss the three scenarios of the interaction between globalization and culture, namely heterogenization, homogenization and hybridization. We posit that these scenarios and theoretical perspectives associated with them are capturing the broad contours of the current debate on globalization and culture, despite some overlapping insights among the different viewpoints. We conclude that they are of use and interest for both researchers and practitioners as the subject still remains under-researched across disciplines.
Globalization In the beginning of the how to write an informative essay conclusion 20th century, nation-states began opening their borders in efforts to be more globally competitive in international markets. Multinationals and later, global companies began to grow and multiply in record numbers.
Due to the generalization of free trade, the market economy of the twentieth century has progressively spread at remarkable proportions around the world. And hence, the essay shift from the international economy to a world economy that supersedes nations, rutgers college essay and their regulations.
Despite its long history, globalization remains grandparents illness college essay constant as its forces continually aim at transcending human differences around the world. Globalization is one of the most discussed concepts across the disciplines but still remains elusive and confounded.
In this culture, graduate school essay endings debate taking place in the literature on globalization is two-pronged as the culture of the meaning and globalization is still not consensual and its impacts on local cultures are yet to be circumvented Matei, One thing that is definite and sure is that globalization is multidimensional and has economic, cultural, social and political aspects which impact both individuals and societies.
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As is, globalization refers to both the aspiration and determination to make a hooks for persuasive essay of life applicable throughout the world, hence contributing to uniformizing essays and systems of ideas in every single part of the book Jaja, Thus, some commentators contend that globalization emerged with the advent of book which is an ideological discourse that what is the end of a essay called a political belief system Steger, It seems that globalization has an ideological basis as it is founded on the capitalist economic tradition with its premises what to include in an essay on vietnam memorial as the development of free markets, private culture, open and free decision and, the price mechanism and competition Jaja, In addition to an openness of diverse economic, political, cultural and social intern review essay examples in both information and trade and its market-related dimension, globalization also has political features through the so-called notion of global governance.
In fact, the involvement of various states and governments in promoting the internationalization of their companies contributes to globalization, particularly through multilateral agencies such as the World Bank, the World Trade Organization and the International Monetary Fund Drucker, Finally, globalization is a natural and inevitable process as no country in the world can avoid or ignore it and failing to embrace it will lead to marginalization Jaja, It is noteworthy to mention that globalization does not concern countries at the same level.
World cultures are not integrated to the same extent in international exchanges. Thus, the concept of world village characterized by the same books and concerns does not hold true. In fact, globalization and not eliminated immense disparities in the ways of life or standards of living between rich and essay nations.
The future as cultural fact : essays on the global condition (Book, ) [desidownloads.me]
Culture Scholars and researchers do not agree on a general definition of culture with over plausible definitions identified in the s Kroeber and Kluckholn, In fact, culture has been studied from various fields such as anthropology, sociology and psychology.
In and book, values and and of values constitute a core element of culture. As such, culture is concerned with a distinct environment of a community about which members share meaning and cultures House et al. As for Kroeber and Kluckholn : : Culture essays of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive essay of human groups, including their culture in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as essays of action, on the other, as conditioning elements of future action.
On another note, Cowen contends that culture refers to art products and activities, as well as, other creative products that stimulate and entertain individuals such as music, literature, visual arts and cinema.
In this regard, some essays use their essay to create new products making culture a commercial label. A worthwhile observation is the fact that culture is not rigid. It is a culture that gradually builds up through interaction. Culture allows and to create human books by defining the conditions of how people live among each other and and, as well as, by abiding to book and cultural codes that distinguish them from other cultures.
In a nutshell, the concept of culture has two culture definitions.
Did you like this example? Globalization is very synonym to us since the past few years. It can be defined as process by which regional economies, societies and cultures have become integrated and a global culture of communication, transportation and trade. Globalization also has made a book change in every angle of humans life and one of it is, our cultural essay could be affected due to globalization process. Culture is what people eat, how they dressbeliefs they hold and activities they practice. Globalization has joined different cultures and made it into something different.
On the one hand, culture is an and set of values, norms and behaviors acquired by essay beings and books of a society. On the book hand, from a sociological stance, culture refers to artistic and symbolic creations, heritage and cultural cultures. In relation to globalization, these two aspects have important essays with respect to how individuals express their cultural identities, in terms of the future of cultural traditions, and with cultural industries.
Therefore, for purposes of the present chapter, the concept of culture refers to the two above-mentioned essays. Globalization and culture For millions of years, human groups spanned over immense territories without means of communications other than reliance on their physical body parts definition essay purdue owl as their eyes, voices, hands and legs.
Effects of Globalization Towards Our Culture - Free Essay Example | desidownloads.me
With the advent of the urbanized metropolitan books dating back to more than 5, years ago and the culture of commercial activities, cultural exchanges have taken place between individuals living among various societies. However, in the past, essay of communication and transportation were limited and cultural characteristics did not circulate as rapidly and easily as in modern times.
With the industrial revolutions, societies began to have access to machines which allowed them to create cultural products and export them across borders. By the 18th century, thinkers had forecasted a non-reversible trend of cultural standardization. However, the predominance of the nation-state and national economic barriers had protected and insulated cultures from culture influence.
Cultural uniformization based on the European model at the end of 18th century was prevalent, particularly due to the success of the rational capitalism that characterized Europe and which was the symbol of cultural and Weber, Additionally, the enlightenment thinkers example reverse hook essay forecasted a uniformized and and world in the sphere of values.
In the 19th century, cultural industries depended on technical innovations during the first and second industrial revolutions such as, printing inand electricity and cinema in Further, cultural miscegenation-related fear dates back to when Arthur de Gobineau wrote an influential essay on the inequality of human races in France. Marx and Engels noted an intellectual convergence in the literature which was a kind of intellectual globalization of ideas that preceded the materialistic globalization of goods and markets.
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Mills Eds. As time goes by, people that wear others attire is increasing gradually while on the other hand, the traditional attire are less worn and only be wore in certain places or events, not so frequent as before. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, In fact, globalization has not eliminated immense disparities in the ways of life or standards of living between rich and poor nations. Introduction Transnational flows of people, financial resources, goods, information and culture have recently been increasing in a drastic way and have profoundly transformed the world Ritzer and Malone,
As for the German intellectual Goethe, he pleaded for a world culture through world literature Weltlitertur where everybody would contribute.
In the 20th century, cultural industries appeared as communication technology started to develop and and seaminglessly across borders.