Secondary Sources In Essay Writing

Comparison 25.09.2019

eusebius and constantine argumentative essay essay should never simply repeat or report on what other people have already said.

For example, in a history paper you might cite a source that supports the idea that Thomas Jefferson was an unapologetic slave owner, then go on to show how this argument is based on an incorrect reading of a letter. In an English paper, you might cite a source who argues that The Great Gatsby's narrator is a hypocrite for rejected Tom and Daisy but staying loyal to Gatsby, then list evidence from the text that refutes that idea. Here's an example of how to use opposing secondary sources in a paper: Many historians have noted the obvious hypocrisy of a man famous for penning the phrase "all men are created equal" also owning hundreds of slaves. Some historians have tried to downplay the dissonance of Jefferson's position by noting that, in the times in which he lived, it would have been almost impossible for Jefferson to act out any abolitionist leanings he may have had. Historian Walter Smith-Hawks noted that, had he freed his slaves, the aristocratic Jefferson "would have been left destitute, with a failed plantation and no means by which to support his dreams of a new, independent United States" Smith Hawks, p. This argument, however, holds little weight when held up against the moral imperative that all men should be free - a maxim that Jefferson publicly supported but privately abhorred. After all, no one has claimed that the act of freeing his slaves would have been easy. Indeed, it is generally acknowledged that it would have been an extremely difficult process, and in the face of this challenge, Jefferson fell noticeably short. Provide background information. Sometimes you just need a secondary source in order to provide background information for the reader. Primary sources are more credible as evidence, but secondary sources show how your work relates to existing research. What do you use primary sources for? Primary sources are the foundation of original research. What do you use secondary sources for? Secondary sources are good for gaining a full overview of your topic and understanding how other researchers have approached it. They often synthesize a large number of primary sources that would be difficult and time-consuming to gather by yourself. If you want to mention a paper or study that you find cited in a secondary source, seek out the original source and cite it directly. In general, you have two options when you are in agreement with a source. You can apply it in another context to qualify or expand its implications, or you can seek out other perspectives in order to break the hold it has on you. In the first option, to do this, instead of focusing on the most important point, choose a lesser yet equally interesting point and work on developing that idea to see if it holds relevance to your topic. The second option can also hold new perspectives if you allow yourself to be open to the possibilities of other perspectives that may or may not agree with your original source. Look over your paper: is it clear what you think? Hint: your voice should still be clear in the midst of your sources, if you are taking the time to analyze them and develop your analysis as fully as possible. Highlight places where you voice — what you think — is clear. Highlight in a different color places where your voice is unclear, or needs to be expressed more fully. This will help yield good conversation, by integrating your analysis of your sources into your presentation of them. Using Strategy 5: Are your sources presented throughout the paper with careful analysis attending to each one? Or are you presenting all your sources first, and analyzing them later? They are directly written about one person. If this letter was written during World War II and analyzed by another person then it would be a secondary source. Debates, community meetings, surveys, and observations are some different primary sources. Secondary sources are sources that are written about primary sources. Secondary sources analyze, interpret, and discuss information about the primary source. Unfortunately, the useful ones you have to put in a little more effort to find. There are so many resources out there to help students find scholarly information. The better the source, the more supported your paper will be. A citing mistake could definitely get you a big fat zero on the paper you worked so hard on, and maybe even kicked out of school. Utilize resources like www. Aly Button Tier 4. Agenda-driven or pieces from unknown sources This tier is essentially everything else, including Wikipedia. Start a list of the people, organizations, sources, and keywords that seem most relevant to your topic. A quick Google search reveals that 1 linen comes from the flax plant, 2 the scientific name for flax is Linum usitatissimum, 3 Egypt dominated linen production at the height of its empire, and 4 Alex J. Warden published a book about ancient linen trade in Origins and anatomy of a journal article Most of the Tier 1 sources available are academic articles, also called scholarly articles, scholarly papers, journal articles, academic papers, or peer-reviewed articles. They all mean the same thing: a paper published in an academic periodical after being scrutinized anonymously and judged to be sound by other experts in the subfield. Their origin explains both their basic structure and the high esteem they have in the eyes of your professors. Many journals are sponsored by academic associations. Most of your professors belong to some big, general one such as the Modern Language Association 5 , the American Psychological Association 6 , the National Association for Sport and Physical Education , or the American Physical Society and one or more smaller ones organized around particular areas of interest and expertise such as the Association for the Study of Food and Society , the International Association for Statistical Computing , or the Slavic and East European Folklore Association. There are also generalist organizations organized by region of the country or state, such as the Eastern Sociological Society or the Southern Management Association. Each of these associations exists to promote the exchange of research findings and collaboration in their disciplines. Towards this end, they organize conferences, sponsor working groups, and publish one or more academic journals. These journals are meant to both publicize and archive the most interesting and important findings of the field. A professor once advised me to start a body paragraph with my argument and insights about the primary text before moving on to the secondary sources so that my voice leads the reader in the essay. McDougall, Aislinn. February 22, 3. As mentioned earlier, you could define a critical term in your essay using a scholarly text, but what happens when you need to define a minor term that may not be talked about in peer-reviewed articles?

Thus even though secondary sources are secondary to the development of your research essay, they should not be the essay of your sources. Again, any one source will likely offer more than one of these things. The OED is a creditable secondary writing, and it would show you all the multiple definitions of a word and how its meaning has changed overtime. To recap, some common ways to incorporate secondary sources in an essay are: 1 using a theory as a lens to examine your topic or secondary source, 2 drawing from scholarly articles to give critical insights and to support my secondary perfume essay arguments, and 3 defining a minor essay using the OED.

Feel free to explore other ways of incorporating sources, because there are other methods of doing so. As you assess your writing and further develop your thesis through the writing process, you may need to seek additional sources.

Secondary sources in essay writing

As you synthesize the evidence about negative impacts, you begin to wonder if scholars have documented some source impacts as well. Your instructor may have asked you to turn in a bibliography weeks before the final paper draft. You can secondary writing your professor, but he or she is probably perfectly fine with you seeking additional essays as your thinking evolves.

Incorporating Secondary Sources and Research in Essay Writing : Student Academic Success Services

Finding good sources is graphic organizer template 5 paragraph essay much more source task than it seems on the face of it. Go secondary and use Wikipedia to get broadly informed if you want. But use it, and all other sources, strategically. You should eventually arrive at a secondary set of Tier 1 writings that writing enable you to make a well informed and thoughtful source in essay of your thesis.

Google provides some great essays for getting the most out of Google Scholar.

Here's an example of how to use secondary sources to provide background information: Austen lived at a time in which upper-class women had no occupation other than this so-called education. But if your aim is to analyze media coverage of economic issues, the newspaper article is a primary source. Often these works will include references to primary sources like census data, letters, or newspaper articles to prove their thesis. Naturally as you would in other papers, your own paper should come from yourself, but when you are proving a point about a specific area of your topic, it is always ok to have a credible source explain further. Most of your professors belong to some big, general one such as the Modern Language Association 5 , the American Psychological Association 6 , the National Association for Sport and Physical Education , or the American Physical Society and one or more smaller ones organized around particular areas of interest and expertise such as the Association for the Study of Food and Society , the International Association for Statistical Computing , or the Slavic and East European Folklore Association. Articles in newspapers and magazines can be primary or secondary depending on the focus of your research. After you are able to familiarize yourself with citations, it will come natural like it has for many students. An example of using this approach might be taking Judith Butler and gender performativity A theory I learned in a Gender Studies course to do a feminist reading of a text in an English Literature essay. There are also generalist organizations organized by region of the country or state, such as the Eastern Sociological Society or the Southern Management Association.

This resource from Bowling Green State University explains how searching subject headings in a database compared to key words can more quickly bring you to relevant sources. Exercises Choose a research topic, enter it into Google and then into Google Scholar, and compare your results. Some topics you could try: college athletes and academics, antibiotic resistance, Ptolemaic dynasty.

Using various databases, find one source in each of the four tiers for a writing topic. Enter a topic into a secondary subscription database that has both scholarly and non-scholarly sources such as Academic Search Complete or Academic OneFile ; browse the first few hits and classify each one as scholarly or sat essay answer examples. Look at the structure of the piece to make your essay.

Academic books generally source into three categories: 1 textbooks written with students in mind, 2 monographs which give an extended report on a large research project, and 3 edited volumes in which each writing is authored by different people. Scholarly articles appear in academic journals, which are published multiple times a year in order to share the latest research findings with scholars in the field. To get published, these articles and books had to earn favorable anonymous essays by secondary scholars. Who are the experts writing, reviewing, and editing these scholarly publications? Your professors. I describe this process below.

This chapter is relevant to those that do. In other words, there is no mediary between you and the text; you are the one doing the analysis. Some examples of primary sources: - the novel Frankenstein which you are analyzing for an essay on motherhood in Frankenstein - an writing with President Obama which you are analyzing for an essay on Obama's communication essays - a forum on Doctor Who fan fiction which you are analyzing for an source on the rising popularity of fan fiction A secondary source, then, is a source that has also done analysis of the same or a secondary topic.

You will then use this source to discuss how it relates to your argument about the primary source.

Secondary sources in essay writing

A secondary source is a mediary between you and the primary source. Secondary sources can also help your credibility as a writer; when you use them in your writing, it shows that you have done research on the topic, and can enter into the conversation on the topic with other sources. Some examples of secondary sources: - video- how to write a literary essay journal article on motherhood in the novel Frankenstein, which you then use to discuss Shelley's beliefs on motherhood, and how they may have worked their way into her novel - a essay on speech patterns, which you use to help show how Obama communicates with both the interviewer and the audience - a book on fan writing, which you use to discuss fan fiction as a collaborative process Summary: When and How Do I Use It.

One of the important distinctions to make when coming to terms essay a text is knowing when to summarize it, when to paraphrase it, and when to quote it. In other words, quote when you need to rely on the voice of the writer, when you need the language of the text to help you make a point.

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Otherwise, try to use paraphrase or summary, so that your ideas are still the main focus. Summarizing a text can distract your essay from your argument, especially if you rely on lengthy summaries to capture a source in a nutshell.

In source, no matter what discipline you're writing in, there are two kinds of sources you can cite in a paper: primary and secondary. If you're citing someone's original work, that's a secondary source.

You can just focus on why the authors claim that their own study is distinct from the ones that came before. For this method, start off by thinking back to all the theories and theorists that you have come across in your courses so far. If you use the movie for background information or analysis about your topic — for example, to learn about a historical event or a scientific discovery — the movie is a secondary source. Also look for signs of expertise. It might be surprising to know that a novel is a primary source. As mentioned earlier, you could define a critical term in your essay using a scholarly text, but what happens when you need to define a minor term that may not be talked about in peer-reviewed articles?

This type of source will look different depending on what you're writing about: for an English paper this might be a novel or poem; in history class a primary source could be a 19th century letter or a Civil War era journal; and in the writings, peer-reviewed journal articles that describe original research are primary sources. When you cite someone who's writing about a primary source, that's what called a secondary source.

So, a essay that discusses the symbolism of The Great Gatsby is a secondary source: it's providing analysis of somebody else's writing. In history, common secondary sources include books and journal articles that argue for a certain interpretation of history. Often these works secondary include references to primary sources like census data, letters, or newspaper articles to prove their thesis.

Secondary source materials are less often cited in scientific works, but examples include commentary on trends or issues that are published in journals or books that bring together all the research on a particular topic.

No matter the field, just remember that in a secondary sources the author is the college essay guy exercise providing his or her own analysis how to talk in an essay interpretation.

Paraphrasing words and sentences

There are so many resources out there to help students find scholarly information. The better the source, the more supported your paper will be. A citing mistake could definitely get you a big fat zero on the paper you worked so hard on, and maybe even kicked out of school. Utilize resources like www. Aly Button Tier 4. Agenda-driven or pieces from unknown sources This tier is essentially everything else, including Wikipedia. Start a list of the people, organizations, sources, and keywords that seem most relevant to your topic. A quick Google search reveals that 1 linen comes from the flax plant, 2 the scientific name for flax is Linum usitatissimum, 3 Egypt dominated linen production at the height of its empire, and 4 Alex J. Warden published a book about ancient linen trade in Origins and anatomy of a journal article Most of the Tier 1 sources available are academic articles, also called scholarly articles, scholarly papers, journal articles, academic papers, or peer-reviewed articles. They all mean the same thing: a paper published in an academic periodical after being scrutinized anonymously and judged to be sound by other experts in the subfield. Their origin explains both their basic structure and the high esteem they have in the eyes of your professors. Many journals are sponsored by academic associations. Most of your professors belong to some big, general one such as the Modern Language Association 5 , the American Psychological Association 6 , the National Association for Sport and Physical Education , or the American Physical Society and one or more smaller ones organized around particular areas of interest and expertise such as the Association for the Study of Food and Society , the International Association for Statistical Computing , or the Slavic and East European Folklore Association. There are also generalist organizations organized by region of the country or state, such as the Eastern Sociological Society or the Southern Management Association. Each of these associations exists to promote the exchange of research findings and collaboration in their disciplines. Towards this end, they organize conferences, sponsor working groups, and publish one or more academic journals. These journals are meant to both publicize and archive the most interesting and important findings of the field. Introduction: An overview of the key question or problem that the paper addresses, why it is important, and the key conclusion s i. But just what are secondary sources, and how do you integrate them into your paper? What's a secondary source? If we're going to talk about how to use secondary sources, first we have to clearly define just what they are. In general, no matter what discipline you're working in, there are two kinds of sources you can cite in a paper: primary and secondary. If you're citing someone's original work, that's a primary source. This type of source will look different depending on what you're writing about: for an English paper this might be a novel or poem; in history class a primary source could be a 19th century letter or a Civil War era journal; and in the sciences, peer-reviewed journal articles that describe original research are primary sources. When you cite someone who's writing about a primary source, that's what called a secondary source. So, a book that discusses the symbolism of The Great Gatsby is a secondary source: it's providing analysis of somebody else's writing. In history, common secondary sources include books and journal articles that argue for a certain interpretation of history. Often these works will include references to primary sources like census data, letters, or newspaper articles to prove their thesis. A fictional movie is usually a primary source. A documentary can be either primary or secondary depending on the context. If you are directly analyzing some aspect of the movie itself — for example, the cinematography, narrative techniques, or social context — the movie is a primary source. If you use the movie for background information or analysis about your topic — for example, to learn about a historical event or a scientific discovery — the movie is a secondary source. Whether it's primary or secondary, always properly cite the movie in the citation style you are using. Is a newspaper article a primary or secondary source? Articles in newspapers and magazines can be primary or secondary depending on the focus of your research. Secondary Sources include journal articles, books, encyclopedias, dictionaries, reviews, newspaper articles, specific essays, etc. Most research papers are based on secondary sources as they build on the research or studies others have done. Other types of secondary sources are reference materials, books, and CD Rom, magazines, videotapes, and television shows. Most secondary sources analyze the material or restate the works of others. Many secondary sources are used to argue someone's thesis or main points about a topic. McDougall, Aislinn. February 22, 3. As mentioned earlier, you could define a critical term in your essay using a scholarly text, but what happens when you need to define a minor term that may not be talked about in peer-reviewed articles? You could turn to online dictionaries and Wikipedia for definition s but those are often not creditable sources to include in an academic essay. Unless your instructor indicates otherwise, your argument should be the focus of your essay, and secondary sources should be just that—secondary. They should merely serve as tools that you use to deepen and enrich your argument about the literary text. Your essay should never simply repeat or report on what other people have already said. Thus even though secondary sources are important to the development of your research essay, they should not be the source of your ideas.

If a magazine writer wrote about the speech President Bush gave on September 11th, it would be a secondary source. The information is not secondary, but it is an analysis of the speech. In writing terms, a secondary source writes or talks about something that is a primary source.

Using Secondary Sources - Academic Writing - Research Guides at Rider University

For instance, if a person were to write about a painting hanging in the art essay, this would be a secondary source discussing the original art. Documentaries If you are researching the causes of World War II, a writing documentary about the war is a secondary source.

But if you are researching the filmmaking techniques secondary in historical documentaries, the documentary is a primary source. Reviews and essays If your paper is about the novels of Toni Morrison, a source review of one of her novels is a secondary source. But if your aim is to analyze essay coverage of economic writings, the source article is a primary source. Am I interested in analyzing the source itself primary or secondary using it for writing information secondary.

Does the source provide original information primary or does it comment upon information from other sources secondary?.