This study aimed to validate a Brazilian interview-version of the PANAS by means of factor and internal consistency analysis. Exploratory structural equation model analysis was based on maximum likelihood estimation and reliability was calculated via Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results: Our results provide support for the hypothesis that the PANAS reliably measures two distinct dimensions of positive and negative affect.
Taken together, these results attest the validity of the Brazilian adaptation of the instrument. Key words: Emotion; epidemiology; structural equation modeling; psychometrics; Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Introduction Positive affect PA and negative affect NA are the two dominant mood factors that emerge from self-report analysis of semantic affect terms.
Since the development of the PANAS, different versions have been successfully elaborated in different languages, 7 - 10 for children 11 - 13 and for adolescents. The international popularity of the PANAS may be attributed to its brevity and, most importantly, to its association with an influential conceptualization of anxiety and depression: the tripartite model.
As for recall bias, it is possible to minimize its interference when the questions refer to more recent time frames for the target event. However, in some cases we maintained the month time frame for asking about work absences due to illness, for example. For example, we attempted to identify any inconsistency between the answer concerning the reason for the work absence and reports of symptoms related to that reason.
Next, a new assessment of the questionnaire was performed with other participants. Following weeks of work, the questionnaire was approved, consisting of 54 short and simple questions, mostly with multiple-choice answers closed questions. Telephone interview The telephone interviews were conducted from October to March The team included 30 interviewers, two supervisors, and a general supervisor. They all received prior training and were accompanied by the study coordinators.
Interviewees tend to have less patience answering questions by telephone when compared to face-to-face interviews. The team used a maximum of 8 minutes for the interview. This was a limiting factor, since some questions from validated scales had to be eliminated Box 1 , as mentioned. Teachers were contacted first via a call to the landline telephone at the school where they worked.
After confirming with the school assistant that the teacher worked there eligibility criterion , the interview started right then if the teacher was able and agreed to answer. Some interventions were performed to adjust the approach to the school assistant that answered the first call looking for the selected teacher in order to schedule the interview per se or to interview the teacher right then whenever possible.
In case of impediments, further contacts were made on different days of the week and at different times until the interview was actually performed or the teacher effectively declined to participate.
The number of attempts varied from one, in case of a successful call to initiate and conclude the interview, to fifteen, in cases when the interview was not initiated or had to be interrupted. If the teacher was interested, he or she could also receive the video via WhatsApp. The data were entered in real time thanks to the electronic system. In other words, the questions were read on a computer screen by an applier that directly and immediately recorded the answers digitally.
Twenty percent of the interviews were randomly selected and supervised. The supervisor monitored the quality of the interviews by listening to the recordings and identifying tendencies, lapses, etc. Despite its limitations, the telephone survey is a means to know how subjects perceive their job situation and to allow researchers to formulate hypotheses on the target phenomena.
Such results are also powerful for orienting measures to transform workplace conditions, backed by social and community constructs that are more robust than those generated through spreadsheets applied by occupational risk managers. Finally, the area where the selected teacher was located may not have been covered by the landline telephone system, as already mentioned and addressed by researchers using this strategy Post-stratification statistical adjustment procedures allow mitigating the effects of the bias related to telephone coverage Details on these procedures have been published in another article The test could be required for safety, with actions required in each case.
The Neyman—Pearson lemma of hypothesis testing says that a good criterion for the selection of hypotheses is the ratio of their probabilities a likelihood ratio. A simple method of solution is to select the hypothesis with the highest probability for the Geiger counts observed.
The typical result matches intuition: few counts imply no source, many counts imply two sources and intermediate counts imply one source. Notice also that usually there are problems for proving a negative. Null hypotheses should be at least falsifiable. Neyman—Pearson theory can accommodate both prior probabilities and the costs of actions resulting from decisions.
The latter allows the consideration of economic issues for example as well as probabilities. A likelihood ratio remains a good criterion for selecting among hypotheses. The two forms of hypothesis testing are based on different problem formulations. In the view of Tukey  the former produces a conclusion on the basis of only strong evidence while the latter produces a decision on the basis of available evidence.
While the two tests seem quite different both mathematically and philosophically, later developments lead to the opposite claim. Consider many tiny radioactive sources.
The hypotheses become 0,1,2, There is little distinction between none or some radiation Fisher and 0 grains of radioactive sand versus all of the alternatives Neyman—Pearson. The major Neyman—Pearson paper of  also considered composite hypotheses ones whose distribution includes an unknown parameter. An example proved the optimality of the Student's t-test, "there can be no better test for the hypothesis under consideration" p Neyman—Pearson theory was proving the optimality of Fisherian methods from its inception.
Fisher's significance testing has proven a popular flexible statistical tool in application with little mathematical growth potential. Neyman—Pearson hypothesis testing is claimed as a pillar of mathematical statistics,  creating a new paradigm for the field.
It also stimulated new applications in statistical process control , detection theory , decision theory and game theory. Both formulations have been successful, but the successes have been of a different character.
The dispute over formulations is unresolved. Science primarily uses Fisher's slightly modified formulation as taught in introductory statistics.
Statisticians study Neyman—Pearson theory in graduate school. Mathematicians are proud of uniting the formulations. Philosophers consider them separately. Learned opinions deem the formulations variously competitive Fisher vs Neyman , incompatible  or complementary.
The terminology is inconsistent. Hypothesis testing can mean any mixture of two formulations that both changed with time. Any discussion of significance testing vs hypothesis testing is doubly vulnerable to confusion. Fisher thought that hypothesis testing was a useful strategy for performing industrial quality control, however, he strongly disagreed that hypothesis testing could be useful for scientists.
The two methods remain philosophically distinct. The preferred answer is context dependent. Much of the criticism can be summarized by the following issues: The interpretation of a p-value is dependent upon stopping rule and definition of multiple comparison.
Several studies have statistically assessed the areas of compromised cognition in the elderly. Multiple testing correction is required to adequately control type I error, and frequently Bonferroni correction [ 2 ] is used to adjust for multiple testing. Next, a new assessment of the questionnaire was performed with other participants.
However, it has also been suggested that the frequency of stimulation entrains the neuronal oscillations at the stimulation frequency, which outlasts stimulation for a short period of time hundreds of milliseconds; Thut and Miniussi,
If successful, one might ask whether the same rationale can be used for treating inattentive symptoms of the elderly or ADHD patients. The aim of hdBCI training is to study whether the training effect on oscillatory power brings along changes in behavior, in particular ideally, that has been shown to be correlated to that oscillation. There is little distinction between none or some radiation Fisher and 0 grains of radioactive sand versus all of the alternatives Neyman—Pearson. These studies show that different brain regions are affected differently by different techniques on different target areas and that precise a priori hypotheses and knowledge about the brain region to be stimulated are necessary for successful augmentation of human cognition.
In some contexts this term is restricted to tests applied to categorical data and to permutation tests , in which computations are carried out by complete enumeration of all possible outcomes and their probabilities. If successful, one might ask whether the same rationale can be used for treating inattentive symptoms of the elderly or ADHD patients. RNA-seq: An assessment of technical reproducibility and comparison with gene expression arrays.
Interestingly however, while Hamidi et al.