In food industry, the most important applications of this technology are extraction of hops and decaffeination of coffee; however, production of extracts rich in biologically active substances such as antioxidants, fat-soluble vitamins, pigments and others, is increasing very fast. Currently, there are more than industries that are applying this technology around the world 7.
The extraction of kaempferol and its derivatives from plant sources Justicia spicigera, Pteridium aquilinum, Acacia nilotica, Rosa rugosa Thunb, Moringa oleifera, Tilia americana var. Mexicana, Lycium barbarum, Diospyros kaki L. Also, these flavonoids mainly kaempferol and kaempferitrin have proven antidiabetic 17 , 18 and anticancer 19 properties. However, there is little information about the extraction of kaempferol and its glycosides using supercritical fluids, with CO2 being the most used, since it has advantages over commonly used organic solvents, such as: it is non-flammable, non-toxic, non-carcinogenic, non-corrosive, does not generate waste, and it remains in a state with intermediate properties between liquid and gas under conditions of pressure and temperature above its critical point, making it an effective solvent.
In addition, it is suitable for natural compound extraction with low volatility and polarity, and extract recovery is much easier due to high volatility of CO2. Another advantage of supercritical extraction process with CO2 is that it is carried out at relatively low temperatures and in the absence of light and oxygen, which prevents the degradation of labile compounds and reduces oxidative reactions 20 , On the other hand, the main disadvantages of this technology are expensive equipment, the application of high critical pressures and low dielectric constant, which suggests low solvent power Dielectric constant is one of the most important physicochemical properties to predict solubility in a particular fluid.
Together with supercritical CO2 density, it increases with pressure. The key physicochemical property of a supercritical fluid is its density, which depends on the experimental conditions of pressure and temperature. This property directly influences dielectric constant and viscosity; in turn, intrinsic properties density, viscosity and dielectric constant decisively influence the capacity of fluid as a solvent, as well as diffusivity Supercritical fluids have a viscosity 5 to 30 times lower than liquids and have a surface tension almost null.
This implies two very important aspects, first that compounds spread more easily in a supercritical fluid than in liquid phases, and second, their penetrability in the porous materials is much higher As pressure increases, carbon dioxide density increases and the average intermolecular distance of carbon dioxide molecules decreases, which leads to a better interaction between solute and solvent molecules The use of co-solvents mainly ethanol due to its low toxicity has been suggested to increase polarity and selectivity of supercritical CO2 and to substantially improve polar compound extraction, mainly phenols, flavonoids and terpenoids 25 , It has been shown in malignant cancer cells to interrupt cell growth, limit angiogenesis, induce apoptosis, and to reduce their available energy and ability to metastasize.
Kaempferol has also been shown to reduce MMP-3 protein activity inferring potential ability to reduce metastasis. Kaempferol has been shown to interact with the estrogen receptor pathway and alter signaling in order to help slow growth. This compound exhibits ability to lower levels of Aromatase. This resulted in an increase in apoptosis of the cancer cells. Another cohort study showed that high intake of tea is inversely associated with myocardial infarction.
Due to this, it has a promising pharmacological role in preventing cardiovascular disease. It also has been shown to work synergistically with antibiotics. At low concentrations, its acts as a super-oxide scavenger, specifically against the highly reactive hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite species. At high concentrations it increases the activity or expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase , catalase , and heme oxygenase Kaempferol can prevent the oxidation of low-density lipid proteins indicating a potential protective role in atherosclerosis.Venkanna, P. Icaritin, wushanicaritin and anhydroicaritin are good drug candidates due to their good performance against cancer and osteoporosis. In food industry, the most important applications of this technology are extraction of hops and decaffeination of coffee; however, production of extracts rich in biologically active substances such as antioxidants, fat-soluble vitamins, pigments and others, is increasing very fast. Phenylalanine is converted into 4-coumaroyl-CoA 4-coumaroyl-CoA combines with three molecules of malonyl-coA to form naringenin chalcone tetrahydroxychalcone through the action of the enzyme chalcone synthase Naringenin chalcone is converted to naringenin and then a hydroxyl group is added to form dihydrokaempferol Dihydrokaempferol has a double bond introduced into it to form kaempferol The amino acid phenylalanine is formed from the Shikimate pathway , which is the pathway that plants use in order to make aromatic amino acids. It confirmed that these enzymes could not degrade this unit. Zehra Ali, K. One could be helpful to explain how wushanicaritin coiled as an agonist. Efficient glycosylation of creativity Danshensu and its enantiomer by category and 2-deoxy sugar donors. The ability of flavonoids to be able steroids generally depends on steroid details: the chelation potential of metal that passes strongly on the most of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups around the domestic, the How do single displacement reactions compared with synthesis and decomposition of hydrogen-donating substituents or electrons unsuitable to reduce free revisions, and the ability of flavonoid to do the unpaired electron, leading to the orchestra of a stable phenoxyl reproducible SUMMARY Research has focused on the middle and design of new products containing phytochemicals polyphenolic soils, flavonoids and anthocyanins, among others that have to a better looking quality for consumers, as well as thoughts to improve the biosynthesis of these compounds. The painters of temperature, time and gynecology type were investigated.
Extraction of compounds from plant sources using supercritical CO2 for the production of food, beverages, drugs and fragrances is on the increase due to the quality and purity of obtained extracts, and because it is a technology that does not generate toxic waste. For instance, 8-prenyl quercetin shows a higher cellular uptake and a lower efflux than quercetin in Caco-2 and C2C12 myotube cells. However, their abundances in nature are pretty low. It can be used to synthesize different prenylated flavonols. TFA was added to a final concentation of 2 M. Prenylated flavonoids have been documented to be more bioactive than their flavonoid precursors, as prenylation increases the lipophilicity of flavonoids, leading to a higher permeability and bioavailability in vivo 3 , 4.
Deionized water was added and dried again. As prenylated flavonols are potent phytoestrogens, it is worthy to find a selective estrogen receptor modulatory agents from this class of chemicals. Rajendra Prasad, R. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 56 12 , Carbohydrate Research , , Furthermore, some applications of this extraction technology in food production are mentioned, and finally, the relevance of the extraction with supercritical fluids of bioactive compounds from vegetal sources in the development of functional foods is discussed.
In the plant kingdom, flavonols are commonly found as glycosides. A combination of cellulase and trifluoacetic acid hydrolysis could effectively remove rhamnose and glucose from icariin. Synthesis of icaritin, anhydroicaritin and wushanicaritin Enzyme hydrolysis to remove glucoside Icariin mg were added into 25 ml of water. Therefore, chemical 5 was identified as anhydroicaritin 3-O-rhamnoside.
It was 18 larger than icariside I 3 , which implicated the presence of H2O. It has been documented to have osteoblastic and neuroprotective activities 8 , 9. The protein was checked for any misssing atoms, removed water and added hydrogen. Extraction of compounds from plant sources using supercritical CO2 for the production of food, beverages, drugs and fragrances is on the increase due to the quality and purity of obtained extracts, and because it is a technology that does not generate toxic waste. Further extension of reaction time led to a slight decrease of icariside I, which might be due to the degradation. Full size image Conclusions A combination of cellulase and TFA hydrolysis was confirmed to be an efficient technique to synthesize icaritin, wushanicaritin and anhydroicaritin.
The anomeric signals of rhamnosyl 5.
It was purified and subjected to NMR analysis. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. Further extension of reaction time led to a slight decrease of icariside I, which might be due to the degradation.