Ideally, air pollution control should be planned for by the same regional agency that does land-use planning because of the overlapping externalities associated with both issues. Enforcement Plan, Resource Commitment The clean air implementation plan should always contain an enforcement plan which indicates how the control measures can be enforced. This implies also a resource commitment which, according to a polluter pays principle, will state what the polluter has to implement and how the government will help the polluter in fulfilling the commitment.
Projections for the Future In the sense of a precautionary plan, the clean air implementation plan should also include estimates of the trends in population, traffic, industries and fuel consumption in order to assess responses to future problems. This will avoid future stresses by enforcing measures well in advance of imagined problems. Strategies for Follow-up A strategy for follow-up of air quality management consists of plans and policies on how to implement future clean air implementation plans.
Role of Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental impact assessment EIA is the process of providing a detailed statement by the responsible agency on the environmental impact of a proposed action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment Lee EIA is an instrument of prevention aiming at consideration of the human environment at an early stage of the development of a programme or project.
EIA is particularly important for countries which develop projects in the framework of economic reorientation and restructuring. EIA has become legislation in many developed countries and is now increasingly applied in developing countries and economies in transition.
EIA is integrative in the sense of comprehensive environmental planning and management considering the interactions between different environmental media. On the other hand, EIA integrates the estimation of environmental consequences into the planning process and thereby becomes an instrument of sustainable development. EIA also combines technical and participative properties as it collects, analyses and applies scientific and technical data with consideration of quality control and quality assurance, and stresses the importance of consultations prior to licensing procedures between environmental agencies and the public which could be affected by particular projects.
A clean air implementation plan can be considered as a part of the EIA procedure with reference to the air. The kernel of this programme is a global database of urban air pollutant concentrations of sulphur dioxides, suspended particulate matter, lead, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and ozone. As important as this database, however, is the provision of management tools such as guides for rapid emission inventories, programmes for dispersion modelling, population exposure estimates, control measures, and cost-benefit analysis.
The GAW programme consists of four activity areas: the Global Ozone Observing System GO3OS , global monitoring of background atmospheric composition, including the Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network BAPMoN ; dispersion, transport, chemical transformation and deposition of atmospheric pollutants over land and sea on different time and space scales; exchange of pollutants between the atmosphere and other environmental compartments; and integrated monitoring.
Figure Air pollution modelling is used to ascertain the total concentration of a pollutant, as well as to find the cause of extraordinary high levels. For projects in the planning stage, the additional contribution to the existing burden can be estimated in advance, and emission conditions may be optimized.
Depending on the air quality standards defined for the pollutant in question, annual mean values or short-time peak concentrations are of interest. Usually concentrations have to be determined where people are active - that is, near the surface at a height of about two metres above the ground. Parameters Influencing Pollutant Dispersion Two types of parameters influence pollutant dispersion: source parameters and meteorological parameters.
For source parameters, concentrations are proportional to the amount of pollutant which is emitted. If dust is concerned, the particle diameter has to be known to determine sedimentation and deposition of the material VDI As surface concentrations are lower with greater stack height, this parameter also has to be known.
In addition, concentrations depend on the total amount of the exhaust gas, as well as on its temperature and velocity. If the temperature of the exhaust gas exceeds the temperature of the surrounding air, the gas will be subject to thermal buoyancy. Its exhaust velocity, which can be calculated from the inner stack diameter and the exhaust gas volume, will cause a dynamic momentum buoyancy. It has to be stressed that it is not the mass of the pollutant in question but that of the total gas that is responsible for the thermal and dynamic momentum buoyancy.
Meteorological parameters which influence pollutant dispersion are wind speed and direction, as well as vertical thermal stratification. The pollutant concentration is proportional to the reciprocal of wind speed.
This is mainly due to the accelerated transport. Moreover, turbulent mixing increases with growing wind speed. As so-called inversions i. On the contrary, convective situations intensify vertical mixing and therefore show the lowest concentration values.
Air quality standards - for example, annual mean values or 98 percentiles - are usually based on statistics. Hence, time series data for the relevant meteorological parameters are needed. Ideally, statistics should be based on ten years of observation. If only shorter time series are available, it should be ascertained that they are representative for a longer period. This can be done, for example, by analysis of longer time series from other observations sites.
There are some natural sources of water pollution. Oil and natural gas, for example, can leak into oceans and lakes from natural underground sources. These sites are called petroleum seep s.
The Coal Oil Point Seep releases so much oil that tar ball s wash up on nearby beaches. Tar balls are small, sticky pieces of pollution that eventually decompose in the ocean. Human activity also contributes to water pollution. Chemicals and oils from factories are sometimes dumped or seep into waterways. These chemicals are called runoff. Chemicals in runoff can create a toxic environment for aquatic life. Runoff can also help create a fertile environment for cyanobacteria , also called blue-green algae.
Cyanobacteria reproduce rapidly, creating a harmful algal bloom HAB. Harmful algal blooms prevent organisms such as plants and fish from living in the ocean. Mining and drilling can also contribute to water pollution.
Acid mine drainage AMD is a major contributor to pollution of rivers and streams near coal mines. Acid helps miners remove coal from the surrounding rocks. The acid is washed into streams and rivers, where it reacts with rock s and sand. It releases chemical sulfur from the rocks and sand, creating a river rich in sulfuric acid.
Sulfuric acid is toxic to plants, fish, and other aquatic organisms. Sulfuric acid is also toxic to people, making rivers polluted by AMD dangerous sources of water for drinking and hygiene.
Oil spill s are another source of water pollution. In April , the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, causing oil to gush from the ocean floor. In the following months, hundreds of millions of gallons of oil spewed into the gulf waters. The spill produced large plume s of oil under the sea and an oil slick on the surface as large as 24, square kilometers 9, square miles.
The oil slick coated wetland s in the U. Birds, such as pelicans, became coated in oil and were unable to fly or access food. More than 2 million animals died as a result of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Buried chemical waste can also pollute water supplies. For many years, people dispose d of chemical wastes carelessly, not realizing its dangers. In the s, people living in the Love Canal area in Niagara Falls, New York, suffered from extremely high rates of cancer and birth defect s.
In , families living in Love Canal had to abandon their homes. If not disposed of properly, radioactive waste from nuclear power plants can escape into the environment. Radioactive waste can harm living things and pollute the water. Sewage that has not been properly treated is a common source of water pollution.
Many cities around the world have poor sewage systems and sewage treatment plants. Delhi, the capital of India, is home to more than 21 million people. More than half the sewage and other waste produced in the city are dumped into the Yamuna River. This pollution makes the river dangerous to use as a source of water for drinking or hygiene.
A major source of water pollution is fertilizer used in agriculture. Fertilizer is material added to soil to make plants grow larger and faster. Fertilizers usually contain large amounts of the elements nitrogen and phosphorus , which help plants grow. Rainwater washes fertilizer into streams and lakes.
There, the nitrogen and phosphorus cause cyanobacteria to form harmful algal blooms. Rain washes other pollutants into streams and lakes. It picks up animal waste from cattle ranches. Cars drip oil onto the street, and rain carries it into storm drain s, which lead to waterways such as rivers and seas. Rain sometimes washes chemical pesticides off of plants and into streams. Pesticides can also seep into groundwater , the water beneath the surface of the Earth.
Heat can pollute water. Power plants, for example, produce a huge amount of heat. Power plants are often located on rivers so they can use the water as a coolant. Cool water circulate s through the plant, absorbing heat. The heated water is then returned to the river. Aquatic creatures are sensitive to changes in temperature.
Some fish, for example, can only live in cold water. Warmer river temperatures prevent fish eggs from hatching. Warmer river water also contributes to harmful algal blooms. Another type of water pollution is simple garbage. The Citarum River in Indonesia, for example, has so much garbage floating in it that you cannot see the water.
Floating trash makes the river difficult to fish in. Aquatic animals such as fish and turtles mistake trash, such as plastic bags, for food. Plastic bags and twine can kill many ocean creatures. Chemical pollutants in trash can also pollute the water, making it toxic for fish and people who use the river as a source of drinking water. The fish that are caught in a polluted river often have high levels of chemical toxins in their flesh. People absorb these toxins as they eat the fish.
Garbage also fouls the ocean. Many plastic bottles and other pieces of trash are thrown overboard from boats. In India and other developing countries, gasoline carries a much higher tax than diesel, which in turn is taxed more than kerosene meant as a cooking fuel, while some solvents and lubricants carry little or no tax. As fuel prices rise, the public transport driver cuts costs by blending the cheaper hydrocarbon into highly taxed hydrocarbon.
The blending may be as much as 20—30 percent. For a low wage driver, the adulteration can yield short term savings that are significant over the month. The consequences to long term air pollution, quality of life and effect on health are simply ignored. Also ignored are the reduced life of vehicle engine and higher maintenance costs, particularly if the taxi, auto-rickshaw or truck is being rented for a daily fee.
Air toxin emissions — which fall into the category of unregulated emissions — of primary concern are benzene and polyaromatic hydrocarbons PAHs , both well known carcinogens. Kerosene is more difficult to burn than gasoline; its addition results in higher levels of HC, CO and PM emissions even from catalyst-equipped cars. The higher sulfur level of kerosene is another issue. Fuel adulteration is essentially an unintended consequence of tax policies and the attempt to control fuel prices, in the name of fairness.
Air pollution is the ultimate result. This problem is not unique to India, but prevalent in many developing countries including those outside of south Asia. This problem is largely absent in economies that do not regulate the ability of fuel producers to innovate or price based on market demand. Light pollution is detrimental for humans and animals , not to mention it makes it impossible to see the stars at night.
Too much noise pollution can damage the human ear and interfere with animal migration. With all these different types of pollution to worry about, why do we need to feel so concerned? Air, soil and water pollution cause roughly 40 percent of global deaths pollution. Air pollution contributes to respiratory diseases such as lung cancer, even in people who have never smoked a day in their life.
Polluted water can carry diseases — and more than 1. Contaminated soil can transmit toxins and chemicals directly into our food.
Sewage that has not been properly treated is a common source of water pollution. Historical disasters The world's worst short-term civilian pollution crisis was the Bhopal Disaster in India. There, the nitrogen and phosphorus cause cyanobacteria to form harmful algal blooms. Emissions per VMT can be reduced by controlling vehicle performance - hardware, maintenance - for both new and in-use cars. Cyanobacteria reproduce rapidly, creating a harmful algal bloom HAB.
Hundreds of thousands more were permanently injured.
Kerosene is more difficult to burn than gasoline; its addition results in higher levels of HC, CO and PM emissions even from catalyst-equipped cars. This increase in worldwide average temperatures, caused in part by human activity, is called global warming. At least 8, people died within days. Carbon monoxide CO — CO is a colorless, odorless, toxic yet non-irritating gas.
For this reason, performance standards based initially on aesthetics or qualitative decisions were introduced into some zoning codes in an attempt to quantify criteria for identifying potential problems. In the s, people living in the Love Canal area in Niagara Falls, New York, suffered from extremely high rates of cancer and birth defect s. When people consume the fruits and vegetables, the pesticides enter their bodies.