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CMC values for gemini surfactants with a rigid spacer and their analogues with a flexible one. Wee and Kennedy reported a normal phase method for the determination of cationic surfactants without separation of the homologous series in environment samples [ 92 ]. CrossRef Google Scholar To determine structures of gemini surfactants, the standard spectroscopic methods, nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy 1H, 13C and 31P , mass spectrometry fast atom bombardment and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy FT-IR are mostly used. Clint JH. On the measurement of critical micelle concentrations of pure and technical-grade nonionic surfactants.
Langmuir , 26 14 , Asheesh Kumar, Gaurav Bhattacharjee, B. Moreover, gemini surfactants can form in solution many morphological structures, like spherical, ellipsoidal, rod shape and worm-like micelles as well as vesicles and helical or tubular forms. The unusual self-assembly behaviour of gemini surfactants possesses challenging puzzles to theoretical investigations [ 83 ].
Synthesis of annulene derivatives.
Silva, M. Langmuir , 26 14 , Green synthesis, molecular characterization, and associative behavior of some gemini surfactants without a spacer group. The potential of a solution containing surfactants is measured as a function of added titrant. Kulkarni, and Rajnish Kumar.
The assessment of the micelle shape is somewhat difficult because it depends not only on the structure of surfactant. The first anionic dimeric salts with two sulphate groups and two alkyl chains have been synthesized by Okahra in [ 49 ]. Bis-quaternization ester derivatives of gemini surfactant. It is the concentration when monomeric molecules of surfactants abruptly assemble into aggregates called micelles [ ] and they are in the balance.
Diffusion coefficients from pulsed gradient spin-echo PGSE NMR experiments reveal that the annulene gemini micelles are similar in size and shape to those of simple monomeric surfactants [ 71 ]. CrossRef Google Scholar The significant influences on geometry and structure of micelles are temperature, concentration, solution condition and ionic strength [ ]. Elongating the hydrocarbon chain makes the molecule more hydrophobic. Conductometry and tensiometry are the most popular and the easiest methods [ 35 ]. This, in turn, is expected to lead to the introduction of innovative, more effective, surfactant-based products in the near future.
Synthesis of cardanol sulfonate gemini surfactant and enthalpy-entropy compensation of micellization in aqueous solutions. Cited By This article is cited by publications. Poorsargol, B. Chem Soc Rev. To get the anticipated properties of gemini surfactants, the structure has to be optimized by modification of HLB. Wasan, Ildiko Badea, Humphrey Fonge.