If the situation purpose calls for you to do this, you will present and then refute these other positions in the rebuttal section of your essay. It is important to consider other positions because in most cases, your primary audience will be fence-sitters.
Fence-sitters are people who have not decided which side of the argument to support. People who are on your side of the argument will not need a lot of information to align with your position. People who are completely against your argument—perhaps for ethical or religious reasons—will probably never align with your position no matter how much information you provide.
Therefore, the audience you should consider most important are those people who haven't decided which side of the argument they will support—the fence-sitters. In many cases, these fence-sitters have not decided which side to align with because they see value in both positions. Therefore, to not consider opposing positions to your own in a fair manner may alienate fence-sitters when they see that you are not addressing their concerns or discussion opposing positions at all.
Be sure that your reply is consistent with your original argument. If considering a counterargument changes your position, you will need to go back and revise your original argument accordingly. Provide a plan of action but do not introduce new information The simplest and most basic conclusion is one that restates the thesis in different words and then discusses its implications.
Stating Your Thesis A thesis is a one- sentence statement about your topic. It's an assertion about your topic, something you claim to be true. Notice that a topic alone makes no such claim; it merely defines an area to be covered. To make your topic into a thesis statement, you need to make a claim about it, make it into a sentence. Look back over your materials--brainstorms, investigative notes, etc. Think about what your readers want or need to know. Then write a sentence, preferably at this point, a simple one, stating what will be the central idea of your paper.
Notice, though, that a sentence stating an obvious and indisputable truth won't work as a thesis: Thesis: This University has a Communication major.
That's a complete sentence, and it asserts something to be true, but as a thesis it's a dead end. It's a statement of fact, pure and simple, and requires little or nothing added. A good thesis asks to have more said about it. It demands some proof. Your job is to show your reader that your thesis is true. Always remember that editors and reviewers are usually quite busy, so it is important that your responses are clear and short. If you have conducted additional experiments, included new data, or added figures, tables, or attachments to the revised paper, you should clearly indicate where this information has been placed.
Always provide the exact page, table, and figure numbers so that editors and referees know where to search. Moreover, reviewers and editors should get the feeling that you value their work and the time they have invested in revising your paper.
We would be happy to make further corrections if necessary and look forward to hearing from you soon. Read it from the perspective of the reviewers. Will they understand the explanations you have given? Is the text clear and precise?
On the plus side, getting feedback on your paper will help you to improve it. You may address issues raised in the literature review, you may address policy issues, or you may raise new questions that are either unaddressed or rarely addressed by others. For a section or sub-section, it can be as short as a sentence. Transitions signal relationships between ideas.
When describing an experiment or some other event or action that occurred in the past, use past tense. Put figures at the top of the page, not in the middle or bottom. Indeed, editors regularly receive poor papers that are accompanied by a letter from a graduate student saying that his or her professor recommended submission.
Now, expand that into a topic sentence for each paragraph. Beginning researchers have a tendency to send wider, longer, and less interesting tables than seasoned researchers. You will rarely want to re-use text verbatim, both because you can probably convey the point better now, and also because writing for different audiences or in different contexts requires a different argument or phrasing.
Here is one way you might go about this; it is time-consuming but extremely effective. Keep the following in mind when writing your paper: Diction Diction refers to the choice of words for the expression of ideas; the construction, disposition, and application of words in your essay, with regard to clearness, accuracy, variety, etc. Choose the best word for the concept, and stick with it. Appendices: If your journal of choice seems not to have published appendices, then check with the editor to see if they are allowed. At the end of this article we also present an annotated bibliography describing other approaches to preparing scientific papers for peer review. In this case Dr.
The Chicago guide to writing about multi-variate analysis. Always remember that editors and reviewers are usually quite busy, so it is important that your responses are clear and short. The progress report will give you practice writing about your work, oftentimes trying out new explanations.
If you decide the referees' criticisms are too severe for you to answer, then write the editor and tell her so along with your precise reasons for not revising your paper. Reporting extra digits can even distract readers from the larger trends and the big picture. The book is a mini-course in writing about numbers, i. The wrong lesson to learn from rejection is discouragement or a sense of personal failure. Different people learn in different ways, so you should complement a textual or mathematical presentation with a graphical one.
If you cannot get a current copy on-line or at a university library, write to the editor explaining the situation and the editor — surely pleased at your concern — will likely send a sample copy. In some cases, rejection indicates that you should move on and begin a different line of research. Some people worry that such consistency and repetition is pedantic or stilted, or it makes the writing hard to follow. Your paper should give the most important details first, and the less important ones afterward. In a list with 3 or more elements list, put a serial comma between each of the items including the last two. Know your message, and stay on message The goal of writing a paper is to change people's behavior: for instance, to change the way they think about a research problem or to convince them to use a new approach.