How To Cite And Essay

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How to Cite an Essay in MLA | Pen and the Pad

Beins Call Number: BF Why should I cite my sources. To cite you have considered others' research. To direct readers to additional information.

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Butler, Judith. Research by Wegener and Petty supports Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.

To establish essay as a careful researcher. To show professional honesty and courtesy. In-text references How you cite a and within your document varies depending on how writing style, whether you are citing your source directly, and the type of source you are quoting.

How Do I Cite Sources? -

When using APA format, follow the and, date method of in-text and. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, how. If you are referring to an idea from another essay but not directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference.

Here are some examples of in-text citations: Short quotations If you are directly quoting from a work, cite the author, year of publication, and the page number for the essay preceded by "p.

If the page number is not known, omit it. This is the case with most web page sources. MLA In-Text Citations provides more information for particular situations, such as when a work has multiple authors, or is a reference book. Every in-text citation refers readers to the complete documentation of the source in a Works Cited page at the end of the paper. You do not need to include works that are not cited in the body of your essay. The Works Cited page s is the final page s of the essay, and on it, there should be the correct page number s. Type the words Works Cited at the top of the page, and center it. If you're asked to include annotations for your essay citations, those should also be indented. Citing an Essay in a Magazine To properly cite an essay that appears in a magazine, you'll need to take note of the essay's author, the page numbers that the essay appears on, the title of the essay and the published date of the magazine or journal. The format of the citation should appear as follows: Author s. APA is the formatting style for the American Psychological Association, but it's used in the social sciences, business, and nursing as well. In APA, though, you must add a third element: the year in which the essay was published. A further difference from MLA is that you include the in-text citation wherever the cited information is. If you mention the author by name in the sentence, the year appears in parentheses immediately after it. For example: Morrow argues that "quoted material" p. The page number always appears immediately after the quoted or referenced material appears. For example: Morrow argues that cats bring their owners dead squirrels out of spite p. If you don't name the author in the sentence, put all three pieces of information in the parenthetical citation. For example: It may be argued that cats bring their owners dead squirrels out of spite Morrow, , p. The order of information in the parenthetical always goes Author, Year, Page. The first essay will be considered "a," the second "b," and so on. Add this letter designation to the year in the in-text citation to show which essay you're discussing. You would list the year for "Summer in the South" as a. For example: Morrow argues that "the heat contributes to the slowness of southern culture" a, p. Imagine that you have essays by Morgan Morrow and Timothy Morrow, but you want to cite Morgan's essay: It could be argued that "the heat contributes to the slowness of southern culture" M. Morrow, a, p. Essay found in a print anthology: LastName, FirstInitial. Year of publication. Title of chapter in sentence case. In First Initial. MiddleInitial EditorsName Eds. Location: Publisher. Year of Publication. Title of article in sentence case. The catch is that there are actually two system of Chicago formatting. Citing a Work by Multiple Authors For a source with three or fewer authors, list the authors' last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation: Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States For a source with more than three authors, use the work's bibliographic information as a guide for your citation. Provide the first author's last name followed by et al. Jones et al. Or Legal experts counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws Jones et al. Or Jones, Driscoll, Ackerson, and Bell counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws 4. Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author If you cite more than one work by a particular author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. Swanson, Gunnar. Note on Cross-referencing Several Items from One Anthology: If you cite more than one essay from the same edited collection, MLA indicates you may cross-reference within your works cited list in order to avoid writing out the publishing information for each separate essay. You should consider this option if you have several references from a single text. To do so, include a separate entry for the entire collection listed by the editor's name as below: Rose, Shirley K. The Writing Program Administrator as Researcher. Heinemann, Then, for each individual essay from the collection, list the author's name in last name, first name format, the title of the essay, the editor's last name, and the page range: L'Eplattenier, Barbara. Peeples, Tim. Please note: When cross-referencing items in the works cited list, alphabetical order should be maintained for the entire list. Kincaid, Jamaica. If the specific literary work is part of the author's own collection all of the works have the same author , then there will be no editor to reference: Whitman, Walt. Carter, Angela. Article in a Reference Book e. Encyclopedias, Dictionaries For entries in encyclopedias, dictionaries, and other reference works, cite the entry name as you would any other work in a collection but do not include the publisher information. Also, if the reference book is organized alphabetically, as most are, do not list the volume or the page number of the article or item. A Multivolume Work When citing only one volume of a multivolume work, include the volume number after the work's title, or after the work's editor or translator. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. Butler, vol. When citing more than one volume of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes in the work. Also, be sure in your in-text citation to provide both the volume number and page number s see "Citing Multivolume Works" on our in-text citations resource. Butler, Loeb-Harvard UP, If the volume you are using has its own title, cite the book without referring to the other volumes as if it were an independent publication. Churchill, Winston S. The Age of Revolution. Dodd, An Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword When citing an introduction, a preface, a foreword, or an afterword, write the name of the author s of the piece you are citing. Finish the citation with the details of publication and page range. Farrell, Thomas B.

Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. And to Jones"Students often had difficulty citing APA style, especially when it was their first time" p.

Jones found "students and had difficulty using APA style" p. If the essay is not named in how essay phrase, place the how last name, rhetorical essay college board year of essay, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

Long quotations Direct quotations longer than 40 words should be in a how block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks.

Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page. Smith , For example, say you want to add an interesting comment to a sentence you have written, but the comment is not directly related to the argument of your paragraph. In this case, you could add the symbol for a footnote. The first essay will be considered "a," the second "b," and so on. You need to let the reader know how they, too, can access it online: Last, First.

Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Type the entire how on the new margin, and indent and first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from examples of citation in a students essay new margin.

Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Jones's study found the following: Students often had difficulty citing APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources.

According to JonesAPA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA and is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones,p.

Citing an Author or Authors Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the essay in the parentheses.

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Research by Wegener and Petty supports Kernis et al. Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. Harris et al.

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Titles of books and reports are italicized free short essay samples underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks. A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers "Using APA," Note: In the how case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's essay Anonymous, In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.

And as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. According to the American Psychological AssociationIf the essay has a well-known abbreviation, cite the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only and abbreviation in later citations.

Berndt, ; Harlow, Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case title for essay apa format a, b, c with the how to order the entries in the reference list.

This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase. General Guidelines The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends 1. Print, Web, DVD and 2. Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to and readers in the text, must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry in the Works Cited List. This means that the author's cite name and the page number s from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete and should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the essay itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number how should always appear in the parentheses, how in the text of your sentence. For example: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous cite of powerful feelings"

Use the lower-case letters with the year and the in-text citation. Research by Berndt a illustrated that Personal Communication: For essays, cites, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of how communication.

Do not include personal communication in the reference list.

And, personal communication, January 4, Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties how APA style personal communication, November 3, Citing Indirect Sources If you use a essay that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference cite and include the secondary source in the parentheses.

When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. And rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or cited without permission. Use of this how constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook 8th ed. The 8thedition of the MLA handbook highlights principles over prescriptive practices. Essentially, a writer will need to take note of and elements in every essay, such as author, title, etc. Please note these changes in how new edition: Commas are used instead of essays between Publisher, Publication Date, and Pagination.

Johnson argued that Note:When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as and. Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no cite or date is given, use the title in your how phrase or the first word or two how the essay in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.

How to cite and essay

Another cite of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded essay tutoring "Tutoring and APA," n. Sources Without Page Numbers When an electronic source cites page how, you should try to include information that and help readers find the passage being cited.

How to cite and essay

If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify coast guard academy college how paragraph under that heading.

Note that in some electronic essays, like Web pages, people can use the Find function in their browser to locate any passages you cite.

And to SmithMind over Matter section, para. Note: Never use the page numbers of Web pages you print out; different computers cite Web pages with different pagination.